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Table 1 Results on time to return to work and rate of return to work

From: A systematic literature review of time to return to work and narcotic use after lumbar spinal fusion using minimal invasive and open surgery techniques

Study Country Number of patients (Technique) Fusion levels Follow up Time to return to work Mean (weeks) Return to work Rate (%)
MIS OPEN MIS OPEN
MIS vs. OS studies
 Adogwa et al. (2011) [21] US 15 (MIS-TLIF)15 (OS-TLIF) 1-level 2 years Median: 8.5 [IQR: 4.4–21.4] Median: 17.1 [IQR: 1.7–35.9] At 2 years: ~90% At 2 years: ~80%
 Kim et al. (2010a) [23] South Korea 43 (MIS-ALIF) 32 (OS-ICF) NR 41.1 months (MIS) 32.9 months (OS) ~14.8 (fulltime work) ~14.4 (fulltime work) - -
 Parker et al. (2012) [18] US 15 (MIS-TLIF)15 (OS-TLIF) 1-level 2 years 8.3 16.3 - -
 Parker et al. (2013) [22] US 50 (MIS-TLIF) 50 (OS-TLIF) 1-level 2 years Median: 7 [4–11] Median: 11 [9–16] At 6 months: ~95% At 9 months: ~80%
MIS studies
 Eckman et al. (2012)a [32] NR 606 (MIS-TLIF) 1 NR - - 96% -
 Eckman et al. (2014) [31] US 1005 (MIS-TLIF) 1- or 2-level 3 months - - 96% of procedures (same-day discharge group)93% of procedures (hospital stay group) -
 Kim et al. (2009) [24] South Korea 48 (MIS-ALIF) 46 (MIS-TLIF) NR 32.6 months (ALIF) 29.7 months (TLIF) 6.1 months (ALIF)10.9 months (TLIF) - - -
 Rouben et al. (2011) [25] US 169 (MIS-TLIF) 1-level (124)2-level (45) 49 months 11 weeks (for 97% RTW right after surgery)17 weeks (for 57% compensation workers) - 97% RTW right after surgery 57% compensation workers RTW -
 Kim et al. (2010b) [35] South Korea 63 (MIS-ALIF) NR 6 years - - 83% -
 Kim et al. (2012) [34] South Korea 44 (MIS-ALIF) 1-level 71.8 months (DS) 66.4 months (IS) - - 91% -
 Zeilstra et al. (2013) [33] US 131 (MIS-AxiaLIF) 1-level 21.8 months - - 64%44% (for fulltime workers) -
OS studies
 Berg et al. (2009) [36] Sweden 72 (OS-PLF/PLIF) 1-level (33) 2 years - - - 72.0%
 Corenman et al. (2013) [37] NR 36 (OS-TLIF) 1-level (24)2-level (12) 41.9 months - - - 84.4%
 Fritzell et al. (2004) [29] Sweden 72 (OS-PLF) 71 (OS-VSP)74 (OS-"360”) NR 2 years - - - 33%
 Gornet et al. (2011) [28] US 172 (OS-ALIF) 1-level 2 years - 96 days - -
 Robertson et al. (2004) [26] New Zealand 35 (OS-PLF) 1-level (12)2-level (16) 31 months - 3–50 months - 100%
 Takahashi et al. (2011) [27] Japan 21 (OS-TLIF) 1-level (18)2-level (3) 26.1 months - - - 90% after 3.9 months
  1. “360 procedure”: Posterolateral fusion plus internalfixation with the variable screw placement device plus interbody fusion; ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion; AxiaLIF: Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion; DS: Degenerative Spondylolisthesis; ICF: Instrumented Circumferential Fusion; IQR: InterQuartile Range; MIS: Minimal Invasive Surgery; NR: Not Reported; OS: Open Surgery; PLF: PosteroLateral Fusion; PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion; PSG: Prior Surgery Group; RTW: Return To Work; TLIF: Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion; VSP: Posterolateral fusion plus internal fixation with the variable screw placement device
  2. aPublished as abstract