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Table 2 Knowledge of ABR and antibiotic use among health professionals

From: Knowledge of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic prescription practices among prescribers in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana; a cross-sectional study

Variables Doctor
(n = 51)
Physician assistant
(n = 69)
Nurse
(n = 188)
CHO
(n = 71)
Total (N = 379) P value
Possibility of antibiotics to stop working in future
 Agree 49 (96.1) 64 (92.8) 148 (78.7) 49 (69.0) 310 (81.8) <0.01
 Disagree 2 (3.9) 5 (7.2) 39 (20.8) 18 (25.4) 64 (16.9)  
 Don’t know 0 (00) 0 (00) 1 (0.5) 4 (5.6) 5 (1.3)  
Antibiotics are effective in bacterial infection management
 Agree 51 (100) 67 (97.1) 180 (95.7) 69 (97.2) 367 (96.9) 0.70
 Disagree 0 (00) 2 (2.9) 7 (3.8) 1 (1.4) 10(2.6)  
 Don’t know 0 (00) 0 (00) 1 (0.5) 1 (1.4) 2 (0.5)  
Antibiotics are effective in viral infection management
 Agree 0 (00) 4 (5.8) 63 (33.5) 22 (40.0) 89 (23.5) <0.01
 Disagree 51 (100) 64 (92.8) 123 (65.4) 47 (66.2) 285 (75.2)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 1 (1.4) 2 (1.1) 2 (2.8) 5 (1.3)  
Antibiotics are effective in protozoal infection management
 Agree 15 (29.4) 20 (29.0) 96 (51.1) 21 (29.6) 152 (40.1) <0.01
 Disagree 35 (68.6) 48 (69.6) 68 (36.2) 35 (49.3) 186 (49.1)  
 Don’t know 1 (2.0) 1 (1.4) 24 (12.8) 15 (21.1) 41 (10.8)  
Antibiotics are effective in fungal infection management
 Agree 11 (21.6) 20 (29.0) 114 (60.6) 48 (67.6) 193 (51.0) <0.01
 Disagree 40 (78.4) 49 (71.0) 67 (35.7) 20 (28.2) 176 (46.4)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 0 (00) 7 (3.7) 3 (4.2) 10 (2.6)  
Antibiotics are effective in managing common cold
 Agree 5 (9.8) 10 (14.5) 92 (48.9) 40 (56.3) 147 (38.8) < 0.01
 Disagree 46 (90.2) 57 (82.6) 91 (48.4) 31 (43.7) 225 (59.4)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 2 (2.9) 5 (2.7) 0 (00) 7 (1.8)  
Antibiotics help patients to recover faster when added to malaria treatment
 Agree 2 (3.9) 3 (4.3) 42 (22.3) 27 (38.0) 74 (19.5) < 0.01
 Disagree 49 (96.1) 66 (95.7) 136 (72.3) 37 (52.1) 288 (76.0)  
 Don’t know 0 (00) 0 (00) 10 (5.3) 7 (9.9) 17 (4.5)  
Antibiotics should be prescribed before lab tests are done
 Agree 12 (23.5) 5 (7.2) 19 (10.1) 12 (16.9) 48 (12.7) 0.03
 Disagree 38 (74.5) 64 (92.8) 166 (88.3) 56 (78.9) 324 (85.5)  
 Don’t know 1 (2.0) 0 (00) 3 (00) 3 (4.2) 7 (1.8)  
Very expensive antibiotics can be discontinued when patient is better
 Agree 8 (15.7) 10 (14.5) 38 (20.2) 20 (28.2) 76 (20.1) 0.15
 Disagree 43 (84.3) 59 (85.5) 143 (76.1) 49 (69.0) 294 (69.0)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 0 (00) 7 (3.7) 2 (2.8) 9 (2.4)  
Antibiotics use might lead to dangerous allergies which could cause death
 Agree 45 (88.8) 55 (79.7) 121 (64.4) 41 (57.7) 262 (69.1) < 0.01
 Disagree 6 (11.8) 12 (17.4) 50 (26.6) 23 (32.4) 91 (24.0)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 2 (2.9) 17 (9.0) 7 (9.9) 26 (6.9)  
Antibiotics will always be effective in the treatment of same infections in the future
 Agree 1 (2.0) 12 (17.4) 57 (30.3) 23 (32.4) 93 (24.5) <0.01
 Disagree 49 (96.0) 55 (79.7) 125 (66.5) 39 (54.9) 268 (70.7)  
 Don’t Know 1 (2.0) 2 (2.9) 6 (3.2) 9 (12.7) 18 (4.8)  
ABR is due to the normal correct use of Antibiotics
 Agree 2 (3.9) 2 (2.9) 30 (16.0) 20 (28.2) 54 (14.2) <0.01
 Disagree 48 (94.1) 67 (97.1) 151 (80.3) 45 (63.3) 311 (82.1)  
 Don’t Know 1 (2.0) 0 (00) 7 (3.7) 6 (8.5) 14 (3.7)  
ABR is due to the use of Antibiotics when not prescribed
 Agree 44 (86.3) 63 (91.3) 153 (81.4) 53 (74.6) 313 (82.6) 0.03
 Disagree 7 (3.7) 5 (7.2) 30 (16.0) 11 (15.6) 53 (14.0)  
 Don’t Know 0 (00) 1 (1.4) 5 (2.7) 7 (9.9) 13 (3.4)