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Table 1 Overview of Scoping Review (Adapted from Arksey and O’Malley [9])

From: Evaluating the impact of prescription drug monitoring program implementation: a scoping review

Step 1. Identify research goal(s) 1) Describe available evidence regarding impact of PDMPs in the United States;
2) Propose a conceptual model for PDMP evaluation to inform future implementation and evaluation efforts.
Step 2. Identify relevant studies PubMed database search of English-language studies published between 1/1/2000–08/18/2015 using key words “Prescription drug monitoring program” and “Opioid prescription monitoring program”. Inclusion criteria: human; English language; original research; peer-reviewed; direct assessment of outcomes related to impact or effectiveness of PDMP implementation. Additional studies were identified using reference lists of relevant articles. Prior to submission, this search was updated to include articles from 8/19/2015–5/31/16.
Step 3. Study selection Irrelevant and duplicate articles were identified by two reviewers at the abstract and title level. Systematic reviews, commentaries, and non-U.S. studies were excluded. Full text of original studies remaining was examined by two reviewers. A third reviewer provided input as needed to achieve consensus.
Step 4. Charting the data A data chart collection form was developed to facilitate extraction of findings and key contextual factors from each study. Consistent with scoping methodology, this sheet was updated collectively and iteratively as familiarity with literature increased. Two reviewers independently assessed articles, then met to determine compatibility in approaches. A third reviewer provided input when needed to achieve consensus.
Step 5: Collating, summarizing, and reporting results The authorship team then independently and collaboratively reviewed summative findings of the data extract, resulting in: identification of distinct domains of opioid-related outcomes hypothesized to be associated with PDMP implementation; conceptualization of an evaluation framework; and synthesis of current PDMP research findings, including recognition of research gaps.