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Table 1 Summary of papers and findings by country and year

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with burnout among health care professionals in Arab countries: a systematic review

Authors, Year of Publication Country Sample size Response rate (%) Gender Professional Group Individual and Workplace Factors Prevalence High EE (%) Prevalence High DP (%) Prevalence Low PA (%)
1. Jahrami et al. [42] Bahrain 153 58.0 Males (48.0%), females (52.0%) Doctors (9.2%), nurses (78.4%), other healthcare professionals (12.4%) Job satisfaction 24.2 18.3 28.1
2. Mohammed et al. [28] Egypt 84 64.6 Males (54.8%), females (45.2%) Residents Working hours
Burnout was correlated with different personality domains and working hours
81.0 64.3 52.4
3. Shams and El-Masry [26] Egypt 98 73.1 Males (73.5%), females (26.5%) Anesthesiologists:
Residents (30.6%), assistant lecturers (32.7%), lecturers (16.3%), assistant professors (12.2%), professors (8.2%)
Job stress, working condition, lack of support 62.2 56.1 58.2
4. Khashaba et al. [36] Egypt 140 100.0 All males Emergency medical responders Organizational stressors 20.0 9.3 19.3
5. Hamaideh [24] Jordan 181 82.3 Males (55.8%) and females (44.2%) Nurses Job satisfaction 54.7 34.2 38.7
6. Ashkar et al.[30] Lebanon 155 75.0 Males (55.5%) and females (44.5%) Residents (different specialties) Coping with stress at work, number of on calls 67.7 47.1 37.4
7. Alameddine et al.[35] Lebanon 755 NR Males (49.6%) and females (50.3%)
0.1% missing
Doctors (44.8%), nurses (32.7%), allied health in primary health care and other health professionals (22.5%) High burnout, lower level of education, and low tenure were all associated with increased likelihood to quit 23.2 13.8 18.7
8. Sabbah et al. [25] Lebanon 200 95.2 Males (31.5%) and females (68.5%) Nurses Work satisfaction, work overload, job title, shift duty 77.5 36.0 33.0
9. Abdallah [40] Palestine 180 NR Males (33.3%) and females (66.7%) Social workers Self esteem 20.0 46.7 13.3
10. Abushaikha and Saca-Hazboun [34] Palestine 152 59.6 Males (26.3%) and females (73.7%) Staff nurses (80.3%), head nurses (12.5%), assistant head nurses (7.2%) Job satisfaction 37.5 9.2 39.5
11. Alhajjar et al.[41] Palestine 176 70.4 Males (48.3%) and females (51.7%) Social workers Employer type 56.2 67.0 85.8
12. Sadat-Ali et al. [39] Saudi Arabia 69 51.9 NA Orthopedic surgeons (consultants and specialists) Hospital type;
Government (G) or Private (P)
Overall = 50.7
G = 40.8;P = 70.0
Overall = 59.4
G = 49.0;
P = 80.0
Overall = 17.0
G = 14.5; P = 30.0
13. Al-Dardas et al. [23] Saudi Arabia 198 79.0 NA Nurses Nationality, marital status area of work and job duration 45.6 42.0 28.5
14. Al Turki [37] Saudi Arabia 37 61.6 All Females Saudi Nurses Job duration 45.9 48.6 13.6
15. Al-Ayoubi and Jan [22] Saudi Arabia 130 65.0 Males (45.0%) and females (55.0%) Pediatricians:
consultants, (46.0%), residents (31.0%), assistants (23.0%)
Hospital types, years of practice,
number of clinics per week
No subscales prevalence
18% Normal (MBI score 20–30)
82% Abnormal (MBI score >30)
a. 19% Mild (MBI score 31–40)
b. 29% Moderate (MBI score 41–60)
c. 34% Severe (MBI score 61–80)
16. Aldrees et al. [29] Saudi Arabia 348 74.0 Males (72.0%) and females (28.0%) Consultants (54.0%), residents (46.0%) Number of years in practice, worked concurrently
in the private sectors
54.0 35.0 33.0
17. Al-Sareai et al. [38] Saudi Arabia 370 94.9 Males (81.9%) and females (18.1%) Primary health care doctors: residents (98.1%), specialists (1.4%), consultants (0.5%) Number of working days,
age and nationality
29.5 15.7 19.7
18. Al-Imam and Al-Sobayel [33] Saudi Arabia 119 72.4 Males (37.0%) and females (63.0%) Physiotherapists Workload, control, reward, fairness, values 42.0 33.6 28.5
19. Al-Dubai and Rampal [27] Yemen 563 70.4 Males (59.5%) and females (40.5%) Doctors:
specialists (30.0%), non-specialists (70.0%)
Long working hours, work-life balance, dealing with patients, and not chewing Khat 63.2 19.4 33.0
  1. Note DP denotes Depersonalization, EE denotes Emotional Exhaustion, NR denotes Not Reported, PA denotes Personal Accomplishment