Skip to main content

Table 4 Core Themes of Therapeutic alliance

From: Characteristics of therapeutic alliance in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice: a scoping review of the literature

Themes (n = 8) Codes (n = 44) No of studies N (%)
Congruence Agreement on goals 32 (24.6)
Problem identification 19 (14.6)
Agreement on tasks 27 (20.7)
Connectedness Perceived good relationship 14 (8.7)
Friendliness 21 (20.3)
Empathy 16 (9.7)
Caring 15 (15.5)
Warmth 13 (10)
Genuine interest/concerna 14 (10.7)
Therapist faith/beliefa in patient 8 (7.7)
Honestya 2 (1.5)
Courtesya 4 (3.0)
Communication Nonverbal 24 (18.4)
Listening skills 39 (30)
Visual aids 7 (5.3)
Clear explanation and informationa 26 (20)
Positive feedbacka 9 (6.9)
Expectation Therapy 25 (19.2)
Outcomes 22 (16.9)
Individualized therapy Responsiveness 9 (6.9)
Holistic practice 8 (7.7)
Influencing factors
 External factors Structures, processes and environment 17 (13.1)
 Therapist prerequisite Skill and competence and experience 30 (23.1)
Personal characteristics 13 (10)
Humor 7 (5.3)
Life experiences 7 (5.3)
Emotional intelligencea 3 (2.3)
 Patient prerequisite Personal characteristics 6 (4.6)
Existing resources 10 (7.7)
Life experiences 11 (8.4)
Willingness to engage 11 (8.4)
Partnership Trust/dependability 23 (17.6)
Respect 19 (14)
Mutual understanding 24 (18.4)
Knowledge exchange 19 (14.6)
Power balance 6 (4.6)
Active involvement/engagement 28 (21.5)
Roles and responsibilities Activating patient’s resources 17 (13.1)
Motivator/Encouragera 26 (20)
Professional manner 13 (10)
Educator/Advisera/Guidea 11 (8.4)
Active follow-upa 5 (3.8)
Autonomy supporta 3 (2.3)
  1. aNew component descriptors identified from in this review