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Table 3 Conceptualization of therapeutic alliance

From: Characteristics of therapeutic alliance in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice: a scoping review of the literature

Author Context Origin Conceptualization Description Therapeutic Alliance Themes
Chan et al., 2009 (10s) aWhitlock et al. 5A’s framework of behaviour change Existing literature on the self-determined motivation and engagement in health-promoting behavior. bSelf-determination theory A. CONNECT 1. Partnership
Communication style and exercise compliance in physiotherapy 2. Congruence
Levy et al., 2008 (30s) cPhysiotherapist Psychological 3. Communication
4. Personalized therapy
Murray et al., 2015 (33 s) Support
B. Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange
Chen et al., 1999 (13 s) aCompliance and satisfaction with exercise Existing literature and empirical study on compliance to home exercise in upper extremity rehabilitation cModel of Human Occupation 1. Input 1. Communication
2. Output 2. Connectedness
cHealth locus of control 3. Environment 3. Partnership
4. The open system 4. Influencing factors
cHealth belief model
Gorenberg et al., 2014 (109 s) aTherapeutic use of self Conceptual practice model for occupational therapy focused on understanding therapeutic use of self. cThe Intentional Relationship Model 1. Client 1. Connectedness
2. Interpersonal events 2. Roles and responsibilities
3. Practitioner 3. Partnership
4. Occupational engagement 4. Congruence
Harman et al., 2012 (63 s) aBuilding blocks of health behavior change Existing literature on, empirical studies about behaviour change and low back pain rehabilitation cTranstheoretical model 1. Need for action 1. Connectedness
2. Solutions 2. Partnership
3. Support
cMotivational model of patient self-management 3. Reducing threat 4. Partnership
5. Congruence
Hinman et al., 2015 (65 s) cModel of Health Change Existing literature on motivational interviewing, solution-focused coaching and cognitive behavioural therapy. cDimensions of health service delivery 1. Practice principles, 1. Connectedness
2. Essential techniques 2. Congruence
3. Step framework
Hurley et al., 2007 (66 s) aUnderstanding of illness Parallel processing framework with one arm dedicated to cognitive processing of internal and external stimulus and the processing of emotional aspects of that stimulus. cLevanthal’s self-regulation model of illness 1. Identity 1. Connectedness
2. Timeline 2. Partnership
3. Consequence 3. Influencing factors
4. Cause
5. Control and cure
6. Illness coherence
Jackson et al., 2012 (25 s) aTripartite efficacy framework in client-therapist rehabilitation interactions Existing literature and empirical studies on efficacy beliefs cTripartite efficacy model 1. Client-related factors 1. Connectedness
2. Role and responsibilities
2. Therapist related factors
bSelf-efficacy theory; relation-inferred self-efficacy 3. Personalized therapy
4. Emotional support
5. Communication
Jensen and Lorish, 1994 (26 s) aBehavioral theory- based strategies for enhancing patient treatment cooperation and patient beliefs Existing literature on compliance, decision-making, cognitive behavioral therapy and the explanatory model of exercise and mailed surveys to PTs cProcess Model of collaboration 1. Therapeutic relationship 1. Connectedness
2. Problem solving
3. Negotiation
4. Mutual enquiry
Kidd et al., 2011 (68 s) aPatient centred care Existing literature and empirical studies on patient-centred care cBiopsychosocial model 1. Ability to communicate 1. Connectedness
2. Understanding of people and ability to relate 2. Partnership
cPatients perception of a good physiotherapist
3. Knowledge and expertise 3. Influencing factors
4. Confidence 4. Communication
5. Transparent focus on progress and outcome 5. Role and responsibility
Knight et al., 2010 (29 s) aClient Satisfaction Existing literature on satisfaction, and physiotherapy and empirical study on patient satisfaction. cConsumer model 1. Service 1. connectedness
2. Satisfaction 2. Influencing factors
3. Dissatisfaction 3. Partnership
4. Quality 4. Congruence
5. Reasons for seeking therapy 5. Communication
Neuman et al., 2009 (116 s) cEffect model of empathic communication in clinical encounter Existing literature and hypothesis on clinical empathy cModel of empathic understanding and adherence to treatment regimens (nature) 1. Cognitive action oriented effects 1. Communication
2. Affective oriented effects 2. Partnership
Niederman et al., 2011 (34 s) aPictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Existing literature on stress, coping strategies and resource utilization cHobfil’s resource conservation model 1. Self 1. Activating resources
bSocial learning theory 2. Resource 2. Treatment goals
3. Separation
cSelf management
Norby and Bellner, 1994 (76 s) aDimensions of helping Existing literature and empirical study on basic assumptions of occupational therapy cTentative model of the helping encounter 1. Basic Professional-Oriented helping 1. Connectedness
2. Understanding-Oriented helping 2. Partnership
3. Action-Oriented helping 3. Roles and responsibilities
Radomski, 2011 (118 s) cEcological model for adherence in rehabilitation Existing literature on adherence and occupational therapy cTranstheoretical model of change 1. Person factors 1. Congruence
2. Provider factors 2. Connectedness
3. Intervention factors 3. Communication
bSelf-determination theory
4. Technology 4. Influencing factors
5. Social
6. Environmental
Schoster et al., 2005 (100 s) cInformation Existing literature and empirical studies on predicting HIV-preventive behaviour cInformation-Motivation-Behavioural skills model 1. Exercise information 1. Connectedness
Motivation and Behavioural model
2. Exercise motivation 2. Roles and responsibilities
3. Exercise behavioural skills 3. Influencing factors.
4. Barriers 4. Partnership
5. Exercise behaviour
Szybek et al., 2000 (121 s) cModel of Physiotherapist-patient interactions Existing literature on Psycho-therapeutic encounters, working alliance, transference and real relationships cGelso and Carter model 1. Interactions 1. Partnership
2. Non-insight oriented therapist 2. Congruence
3. Insight oriented therapist
Verkaaik et al., 2010 (123 s) aProductive partnership (P2) framework Existing literature on power distribution in partnerships cIndependent living movement model 1. Context 1. Partnership
2. Predicted characteristics
cConsumer direction model 3. Autonomy
4. Knowledge
  1. aFrameworks (n = 10), bTheories (n = 3), cModels (n = 19)