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Table 2 The Association Between Individual Lifestyle and Healthcare Utilization

From: Do healthier lifestyles lead to less utilization of healthcare resources?

Variable Number of outpatient visits Number of health exams Seen by the same physicians
Yes No  
Mean (SD) p Mean (SD) p N (%) N (%) p
Exercise Habits        
 Yes 1.12 (1.01) <0.001 1.14 (1.36) <0.001 843 (41.7) 281 (31.6) <0.001
 No 0.91 (0.92)   0.70 (1.15)   1179 (58.3) 608 (68.4)  
Breakfast        
 Yes 0.99 (0.97) 0.984 0.87 (1.25) 0.185 1966 (97.2) 862 (97.0) 0.781
 No 0.99 (0.85)   0.69 (1.21)   56 (2.8) 27 (3.0)  
Regular meals        
 Yes 0.99 (0.96) 0.905 0.88 (1.26) 0.001 1944 (96.1) 839 (94.4) 0.041
 No 1.00 (1.04)   0.57 (1.03)   78 (3.9) 50 (5.6)  
5 servings of fruits& vegetables        
 Yes 0.98 (0.95) 0.036 0.66 (1.13) 0.001 1807 (89.4) 782 (88.0) 0.295
 No 1.10 (1.04)   0.89 (1.26)   215 (10.6) 107 (12.0)  
Dieting Habits        
 Yes 0.98 (0.96) 0.098 0.89 (1.26) <0.001 1829 (90.5) 787 (88.5) 0.128
 No 1.08 (1.03)   0.62 (1.11)   193 (9.5) 102 (11.5)  
Aware of food packaging labels        
 Yes 0.98 (0.95) 0.015 0.87 (1.25) 0.686 1860 (92.0) 815 (91.7) 0.833
 No 1.16 (1.11)   0.83 (1.30)   162 (8.0) 74 (8.3)  
Aware of self-health        
 Yes 1.00 (0.96) 0.091 0.88 (1.26) <0.001 1953 (96.6) 858 (96.5) 1.000
 No 0.83 (0.95)   0.45 (1.00)   69 (3.4) 31 (3.5)  
Regular BP        
 Yes 1.12 (1.01) <0.001 1.08 (1.35) <0.001 1337 (66.1) 520 (58.5) <0.001
 No 0.76 (0.83)   0.49 (0.94)   685 (33.9) 369 (41.5)  
Smoking        
 Yes 0.97 (0.99) 0.496 0.88 (1.33) 0.780 552 (27.3) 262 (29.5) 0.247
 No 1.00 (0.95)   0.86 (1.22)   1470 (72.7) 627 (70.5)  
Drinking        
 Yes 0.95 (0.94) 0.088 0.92 (1.25) 0.068 726 (35.9) 381 (42.9) <0.001
 No 1.01 (0.97)   0.83 (1.25)   1296 (64.1) 508 (57.1)  
Betel-Nut chewing        
 Yes 0.91 (0.90) 0.098 0.80 (1.31) 0.320 235 (11.6) 105 (11.8) 0.933
 No 1.00 (0.97)   0.87 (1.25)   1787 (88.4) 784 (88.2)