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Table 5 Summary of risk of bias of included studies for non randomised trials, controlled before after studies, interrupted time series, and historically controlled trials (1=strong, 2=moderate, 3=weak, -=Not applicable)

From: A systematic review of strategies to increase access to health services among children in low and middle income countries

Study author, Year Selection bias Design Confounders Blinding Data collection methods Withdrawals/ dropouts Global rating
Brenner et al, (2011) [92] 1 1 3 2 1 - 2
Chandir et al, (2010) [83] 2 2 1 2 - 3 2
Fatugase et al, (2013) [58] 2 2 1 3 2 1 2
Finocchario-Kessler et al, (2014) [37] 1 3 1 2 - 1 2
Galasso et al, [35] 2 3 3 2 1 3 3
Kundu et al, (2012) [85] 1 3 3 2 1 1 3
McCollum et al, (2012) [34] 2 2 3 2 - 1 2
Oche et al, (2011) [67] 1 2 3 2 - 1 2
Ridde et al, (2013) [93] 2 2 3 2 - 3 2
Robinson et al, (2001) [46] 3 2 3 2 - - 3
Ryman et al, (2011) [47] 2 2 3 2 - - 2
Schwartz et al, (2004) [52] 2 2 3 2 - - 3
Simonyanm et al, (2013) [42] 1 2 1 2 - 1 1
  1. Note: Data collection methods “not applicable” when validity and reliability were not of tools were not a concern (e.g. self-report or medical records). Withdrawals/dropouts “not applicable” when surveys were conducted on a different group of people at baseline and follow-up