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Table 3 Description of interventions of included studies, grouped according to demand-side and non-financial and financial (P = positive; MP = mixed positive; N = negative)

From: A systematic review of strategies to increase access to health services among children in low and middle income countries

  Non-financial Effectiveness Reference Financial Effectiveness Reference
Demand Health promotion/education programmes Financial or other incentives
Health worker    Cash transfers   
 Redesigned immunisation card, centre based education delivered by health worker P [70, 71] Cash transfers (conditional or unconditional) MP [78, 86]
 Structured educational programme on childhood infections for mothers delivered by health worker P [58]   N [81, 82]
 Post-partum home visits by registered midwives to provide information, educate and support women N [11] Fee exemptions   
CHW    User fee exemption P [77]
 CHW home visits for pregnant women to promote newborn care, refer sick newborns N [38]   MP [79]
  MP [57] Incentive schemes   
 Package of essential newborn care for pregnant women delivered by CHW N   Food/medicine coupon incentive at each immunisation visit P [83]
 Postnatal educational programme delivered by CHW N [55] Supplementary nutrition as monthly take home for children attending paediatric HIV/AIDS clinic P [85]
 Educational programme for mothers using pictorial cards about vaccinations delivered by CHW P   Combined interventions (primary component financial)
 Antenatal and postnatal home visits for pregnant women by CHWs to provide health messages MP [63, 68] Fee exemption, social mobilisation, education, improvement of service quality, financial monitoring P  
 Antenatal and postnatal home visits for pregnant women by CHWs to provide health messages, assist with birth in absence of skilled care, manage illness where referral not available (sepsis, pneumonia), health facility strengthening N [72] Conditional cash transfer, strengthening of services N [84]
Conditional cash vouchers, health service strengthening and community based nutrition programme MP [87]
Other member of the community (teacher, volunteer, lay counsellor)    
Educational programme on newborn care N     
Educational programme on vaccines MP [53]    
  N [67]    
Women’s groups      
 Women’s groups with participatory models of communication, identification of problems, development, implementation and monitoring of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal problems N [59, 61, 64, 66, 69]    
Combined interventions (Primary component education)      
 Women’s groups, health systems strengthening, training of staff N [39]    
 Health promotion delivered by CHW, illness management, reporting, community development P     
 Health education of families, identification of sick newborns in the community by CHW, health systems strengthening and strengthening of referral systems (including provision of free care and referrals) P [54]    
 Home visits by CHWs, training in improved case management of sick children, women’s groups, strengthening of health systems N [65]    
Text messages    
 Early infant diagnosis P [37]    
 HIV appointment reminders P [74]    
 Vaccination P     
 Text messages providing health promotion for HIV P