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Table 3 Two-part regression model-Incremental effects of healthcare expenditures by sex among adults with diabetes

From: Sex differences in healthcare expenditures among adults with diabetes: evidence from the medical expenditure panel survey, 2002–2011

Variables Incremental Cost 95% Confidence
Interval
P-value
Out-of-pocket expenses
 Prescription 156 87–225 <0.001***
 Office-Based 53 24–83 <0.001***
 Inpatient −0.36 −21–20 0.972
 Outpatient 12 1.5–23 0.026*
 ER visit −3 −8–2 0.285
 Dental 19 −7–46 0.156
 Home healthcare 9 −1–20 0.080
 Others 19 7–30 0.001**
 Pooled 242 134–350 <0.001***
Total direct expenditures
 Prescription 184 50–318 0.007**
 Office-Based 2 −153–158 0.975
 Inpatient −213 −563–136 0.232
 Outpatient 45 −73–165 0.454
 ER visit −23 −58–11 0.180
 Dental 25 −17–68 0.245
 Home healthcare 59 2–116 0.041*
 Others −0.86 −21–20 0.936
 Pooled 232 −300–765 0.392
  1. Reported as dollars in 2014. *Level of significance p < 0.05; ** level of significance p < 0.01; ***level of significance p < 0.001. Reference group: men with diabetes
  2. Primary outcome variables in this regression model are out-of-pocket and total direct expenditures controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, health insurance, MSA, census region, income, a number of comorbid conditions (hypertension, CVD, stroke, emphysema, joint pain, arthritis and asthma) and time trend