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Table 2 Subject characteristics by prolonged length of stay defined as greater than or equal to the mean of 1.8 days

From: Length of paediatric inpatient stay, socio-economic status and hospital configuration: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic prolonged length of stay Overall (n = 2889)a p valueb
Less than 1.8 days (n = 1772) a Greater than or equal to 1.8 days (n = 1117)a
Hospital site P (Paediatric led A&E) 34 31 61.3 0.089
A (Adult physician led A&E) 66 69   
Demographic Gender Male 56.4 55.2 55.9 0.584
Female 43.6 44.8   
Age (years) mean, SD 4.2 ± 4.4 3.4 ± 4.4 3.9 ± 4.4 <0.001
Age group (years) 1 and Under 35.4 48 40.3 <0.001
2 to 5 36.9 30.1 34.3
6 to 10 14.2 11.3 13.1
11 to 16 13.5 10.7 12.4
Ethnic Group White 32.3 32.2 32.3 0.706
Mixed White 23.3 23.8 23.5
Asian 30.5 3.3 30.4
Black 7 7.9 7.3
Other/unspecified 6.9 5.8 6.5
Distance (Km)a Mean 6.5 ± 24.8 6.1 ± 20.3 6.3 ± 23.2 0.107
Distance (quartiles)a 1st (closest) 23.5 27.2 24.9 0.135
2nd 25.8 24 25.1
3rd 25 25.1 25
4th (furthest) 25.8 23.8 25
IDACI Mean 0.3 ± 0.14 0.43 ± 0.17 0.34 ± 0.17 0.685
Median 0.31 0.32 0.32  
IDACI (quartiles)c 1st (least deprived) 25.3 24.3 24.9 <0.001
2nd 25.1 24.8 25
3rd 23.3 27.6 24.9
4th (most deprived) 26.3 23.3 25.1
Clinical Specialty Medical 82.1 93 86.3 <0.001
Surgical 18 6.9 13.7
Diagnosis allergy 0.5 0.5 0.5 <0.001
cardiac 0.8 1.1 1.5
endocrine 1.2 1.9 2.6
gastro 12.7 12.5 12.6
haemoncology 4.8 5.7 5.2
infection 20.2 23.8 21.6
MSK 1.8 1.2 1.6
neurology 7.6 6.5 7.1
other 2.3 2.2 2.3
psychosocial 1.9 9 1.5
respiratory 19.6 24.5 21.5
surgical GIT 6.2 2.9 1.5
trauma 16.5 6.2 12.5
urogenital 3.8 5.4 4.4
Maxfax/Dental/ENT 3.9 1.8 3.1
congenital 0.3 0.3 0.3
Dermatology 1.7 2.7 2.1
Number of admissions in the year 1 68.2 64.2 66.6 0.038
2 17.7 18.1 17.8
3 5.3 7.4 6.1
4 or more 8.9 10.3 9.5
Readmission within 28 days 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.941
Process Time of admission 9.00 to 16.59 33.5 36.4 34.6 <0.001
17.00 to 21.59 24 34.4 28
22.00 to 08.59 42.6 29.2 37.4
Day of admission weekday 85.9 87.4 86.5 0.256
weekend 14.1 12.6 13.5
Season of admission spring 26.4 28.6 27.2 0.58
summer 24.6 22.6 23.8
autumn 24.7 26.1 25.2
winter 24.4 22.7 23.8
Source of admission elective 11 2.4 7.7 <0.001
emergency via A&E 75.6 85.1 79.2
emergency via other 12.3 9 11
other 11.9 3.6 2.1
  1. A&E Accident and Emergency department, ENT Ears nose and throat, GIT Gastrointestinal Tract, IDACI Income deprivation affecting children index, LOS Length of stay, MaxFax Maxillofacial, MSK Musculoskeletal, SD Standard deviation
  2. aData were complete for all variables except for distance lived from hospital (n = 74) due to missing postcode or mismatched hospital ward to hospital
  3. bUnivariate analysis of continuous variables using t-test (parametric) or Mann–Whitney (non-parametric) and of categorical variables using chi2
  4. cQuartile of IDACI was calculated in absolute terms for the total dataset not by hospital
  5. % of children in each category unless indicated