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Table 2 Scales and sample items included in estimated structural model

From: A structural model of treatment program and individual counselor leadership in innovation transfer

  N Mean (SD)
Transformational Leadership (Edwards, Knight, Broome, & Flynn, 2010) 297 37.9 (7.4)
 Encourages Innovation (4 items; α = .87): 297 39.1 (7.7)
  o Program director positively acknowleges creative solutions to problems.   
  o Program director encourages ideas other than own.
 Inspirational Motivation (6 items; α = .91): 297 38.7 (7.4)
  o Program director displays enthusiasm about pursuing program goals.   
  o Program director expresses confidence in staff members’ collective ability to reach program goals.
 Develops Others (4 items; α = .88): 297 36.5 (8.6)
  o Program director offers individual learning opportunities to staff members for professional growth.   
  o Program director takes into account individual abilities when teaching staff members.
 Task Delegation (9 items; α = .94): 297 37.4 (7.8)
  o Program director follows delegation of a task with support and encouragement.   
  o Program director allocates adequate resources to see tasks are completed.
Organizational Climate (Lehman, Greener, & Simpson, 2002) 297 33.6 (5.5)
 Clarity of Mission (5 items; α = .73): 297 35.0 (6.5)
  o Duties clearly related to the goals of this program.   
  o This program operates with clear goals and objectives.
 Staff Cohesiveness (6 items; α = .88): 297 36.2 (8.2)
  o Staff here all get along very well.   
  o Staff here are always quick to help one another when needed.
 Staff Autonomy (5 items; α = .56): 297 35.2 (5.1)
  o Management here fully trusts your professional judgment.   
  o Counselors here are given broad authority in treating their own clients.
 Communication (5 items; α = .81): 297 33.5 (7.3)
  o Program staff are always kept well informed.   
  o Formal and informal communication channels here work very well.
 Stress (4 items; α = .81): 297 32.6 (8.4)
  o You are under too many pressures to do your job effectively.   
  o The heavy workload here reduces program effectiveness.
 Openness to Change (5 items; α = .72): 297 34.3 (6.2)
  o It is easy to change procedures here to meet new conditions.   
  o You are encouraged here to try new and different techniques.
Staff Attributes (Lehman, Greener, & Simpson, 2002)   
 Efficacy (5 items; α = .68): 297 40.8 (4.9)
  o You have skills needed to conduct effective group counseling.   
  o You are effective and confident in doing your job.
Influence (6 items; α = .80):   
 Willingness and ability of a counselor to influence co-workers 297 37.5 (6.9)
  o Staff generally regard you as a valuable source of information.   
  o You are viewed as a leader by other staff here.
Adaptability (4 items; α = .65):   
 Staff ability to adapt to a changing environment 297 40.2 (5.2)
  o Learning and using new procedures are easy for you.   
  o You are able to adapt quickly when you have to shift focus.
Counseling Innovation Interest (CII; 9 items; α = .85): 297 3.51 (.65)
 • You read about new techniques and treatment information each month.   
 • You regularly read professional journal articles or books on drug abuse treatment.
 • You do a good job of regularly updating and improving your skills.
 • When you attend workshops, how often do you try out the new interventions or techniques learned?
 • In recent years, how often have you adopted (for regular use) new counseling interventions?
 • You like to use new types of therapy/interventions to help your clients.
 • You are willing to try new types of therapy/interventions even if you have to follow a treatment manual.
 • You would try a new therapy/intervention even if it were very different from what you are used to doing.
 • You are willing to use new and different types of therapy/interventions developed by researchers.