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Table 2 Summary of clinical outcomes, measurement instrument used, and effectiveness for studies reporting a clinical outcome

From: Where’s the evidence? a systematic review of economic analyses of residential aged care infrastructure

Intervention, Study Outcome Measurement instrument Effectiveness results as measured by measurement instrument (baseline; follow-up)
Proprietary status, Davis 1993 [41] Composite measure of poor quality based on rates of decubitus ulcers, catheterization, physical restraints, chemical restraints, and drug error rates. Composite index Higher scores indicate poorer quality Mean (SD) For-profit: 0.34 (2.30) Not-for-profit: −0.57 (1.87)
Person-centred environment (PCE), Chenoweth 2014 [40] Agitation Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) Higher score indicates greater agitation Mean (95% CI) Control: 52 (43–61); 51 (41–62) PCE: 65 (57–73); 55 (46–64); p = 0.04
Quality of life DemQol-proxy Higher score indicates improved quality of life Mean (95% CI) Control: 101 (98–104); 103 (99–106) PCE: 101 (99–104); 106 (103–109); p = 0.02
Social interactions and behaviour Care interaction quality (QUIS) % interactions positive Mean (95% CI) Control: 78 (73–83); 82 (76–88) PCE: 78 (74–83); 82 (76–87); p = 0.55
  Emotional responses in care (ERIC) % positive Mean (95% CI) Control: 25 (20–30); 25 (18–31) PCE: 23 (18–28); 26 (21–32); p = 0.63
Special care unit (SCU), Swanson 1993 [42] Swanson 1994 [43] Cognitive status Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) Cognitive dimension, higher scores indicate lower cognitive ability Mean (SD) Traditional: 45.38 (15.64); 52.88 (17.89) SCU: 56.67 (12.94); 59.69 (12.95)
Social interactions and behaviour Individual Incident Reports (IIR) Number of catastrophic reactions Mean (SD) Traditional: 82; 46 SCU: 156; 48
Function Functional Abilities Checklist (FAC) Higher score indicates greater function Mean (SD) Traditional: 73.67 (15.41); 71.63 (12.25) SCU: 76.15 (12.35); 76.23 (9.76)
  Geriatric Rating Scale (GRS) Higher score indicates reduced function Mean (SD) Traditional: 30.89 (8.18); 35.13 (10.22) SCU: 32.69 (7.76); 35.39 (7.38)