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Table 2 Descriptive data for LiHcQ, internal consistency and test-retest

From: A questionnaire measuring staff perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare: development and psychometric testing

  n = 386 test –retest n = 43
Factors Item no in LiHcQ). (Likers principle) Missing n (%) Mean (SD) Md (Q1− Q3) ICC  (95% CI)
Philosophy α = 0.75     0.80 (0.63;0.89)
1). Employees participation in Lean (Long-term thinking. Plan ahead and do investments even if they costs more at present) 17 (4) 3 (1) 3 (2–4) 0.75 (0.53;0.86)
2). Ward manager participation in Lean (Long-term thinking. Plan ahead and do investments even if they costs more at present) 67 (17) 3 (1) 3 (3–4) 0.79 (0.59;0.89)
3). Allocated time for continuous improvements (Long-term thinking. Plan ahead and do investments even if they costs more at present) 6 (1) 3 (1) 2 (2–3) 0.64 (0.33;0.81)
Processes α = 0.86     0.77 (0.57;0.87)
6). Value stream mapping (Create flow in the processes which makes problem visible) 34 (9) 3 (1) 3 (2–3) 0.50 (0.06;0.73)
7). Standardization (Have standardized work to achieve flow and continuous improvements. Encourage employee involvement) 9 (2) 4 (1) 4 (3–4) 0.76 (0.56;0.87)
8). Plan with the patient in focus (Level out the workload) 18 (5) 3 (1) 3 (2–4) 0.55 (0.16;0.76)
9). Automatically quality controls (Good quality from the beginning is achieved by teaching everyone to stop the process if quality problem occurs) 39 (10) 3 (1) 3 (1–3) 0.65 (0.33;0.81)
10). Patient need control the work flow (Avoid overproduction by producing only on customer demand) 24 (6) 3 (1) 3 (2–4) 0.37 (0.19;0.66)
11). Visual improvements to guide the employees (Use visualized signs in the process, to reduce errors) 21 (6) 3 (1) 3 (2–4) 0.80 (0.62;0.89)
15). Technique and involve employees (Use only techniques that are reliable; it shall support the employee and the processes) 8 (2) 3 (1) 3 (3–4) 0.67 (0.38;0.82)
People and partners α = 0.60     0.88 (0.77;0.93)
4). A person who support Lean adoption at the unit (Develop leaders from the organization that know the processes, know and can spread the Lean philosophy) 21 (5) 2 (1) 1 (1–2) 0.94 (0.88;0.97)
5). Quality of given care (Develop a culture where everyone share the organizations core values and want to improve the organization) 17 (4) 3 (1) 4 (2–4) 0.75 (0.55;0.87
16). Employee collaboration with partners and suppliers (Show respect to partners and suppliers and set up challenging goals for theme and help them to achieve it) 14 (4) 3 (1) 2 (2–3) 0.66 (0.37;0.82)
Problem-solving α = 0.81     0.79 (0.61;0.89)
12). Evaluate each work task (Be a learning organization through reflections and continuous improvements) 20 (5) 3 (1) 2 (1–4) 0.80 (0.64;0.89)
13). Problem-solving (To develop processes and to solve problems; go and see for yourself instead of trusting secondary information) 14 (4) 3 (1) 3 (2–4) 0.68 (0.39;0.83)
14). Participation in decisions (Decision making is a slow process and solutions are made in consensus) 8 (2) 3 (1) 3 (3–4) 0.72 (0.47;0.85)
  1. αCronbach’s alpha, LiHcQ lean in healthcare questionnaire, SD standard deviation, Md median, Q quartiles, ICC intra-class correlation coefficient, CI confidence interval