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Table 1 Classification scheme for benchmarking by Fong et al. [16]

From: Benchmarking specialty hospitals, a scoping review on theory and practice

Classification Type Meaning
Nature of benchmarking partner Internal Comparing within one organization about the performance of similar business units or processes
Competitor Comparing with direct competitors, catch up or even surpass their overall performance
Industry Comparing with company in the same industry, including noncompetitors
Generic Comparing with an organization which extends beyond industry boundaries
Global Comparing with an organization where its geographical location extends beyond country
Content of benchmarking Process Pertaining to discrete work processes and operating systems
Functional Application of the process benchmarking that compares particular business functions at two or more organizations
Performance Concerning outcome characteristics, quantifiable in terms of price, speed, reliability, etc.
Strategic Involving assessment of strategic rather than operational matters
Purpose for the relationship Competitive Comparison for gaining superiority over others
Collaborative Comparison for developing a learning atmosphere and sharing of knowledge