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Table 2 Multilevel model results for 30-day unplanned readmission: random effect measures and adjusted odds ratios (95%CIs) for individual-level and hospital-level variables

From: Variation in readmission and mortality following hospitalisation with a diagnosis of heart failure: prospective cohort study using linked data

Model 1 2 3 4 5
Random effects
 Hospital variance 0.14 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.09
  ICC 0.0205 0.0212 0.0172 0.0125 0.0074
  P-value 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.34
  MOR 1.43 1.44 1.41 1.37 1.32
  PCV (%)   −1.82 9.95 14.94 22.9
Fixed effects Odds ratios
Sociodemographic
 Age (years, at index admission)
  45– < 75   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  75– < 85   1.10 (0.93,1.31) 1.10 (0.93,1.31) 1.06 (0.89,1.27) 1.06 (0.89,1.27)
   ≥ 85   1.01 (0.84,1.21) 0.99 (0.82,1.19) 0.92 (0.75,1.13) 0.92 (0.75,1.13)
 Sex
  Male   1.19 (1.04,1.37) 1.23 (1.07,1.43) 1.17 (1.00,1.37) 1.18 (1.00,1.37)
  Female   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Marital status
  Married    0.90 (0.77,1.04) 0.90 (0.78,1.05) 0.91 (0.78,1.05)
  Not married    1.00 1.00 1.00
 Region of residence
  Major cities    1.00 1.00 1.00
  Regional    1.01 (0.86,1.19) 1.03 (0.87,1.22) 1.03 (0.87,1.22)
  Remote    1.08 (0.90,1.31) 1.13 (0.93,1.36) 1.04 (0.83,1.29)
 Education
  No school certificate    1.00 1.00 1.00
  School/trade/certificate/diploma    1.11 (0.94,1.32) 1.13 (0.95,1.35) 1.14 (0.96,1.36)
  Tertiary degree    0.89 (0.67,1.17) 0.89 (0.67,1.18) 0.91 (0.69,1.21)
 Private health insurance
  Yes    0.89 (0.77,1.03) 0.92 (0.80,1.07) 0.97 (0.83,1.14)
  No    1.00 1.00 1.00
Baseline health (self-reported)
 Duke Social Support Index     0.95 (0.91,0.99) 0.95 (0.91,0.99)
 Body mass index
  Underweight (15– < 18 kg/m2)     1.23 (0.80,1.89) 1.23 (0.80,1.89)
  Normal (18– < 25 kg/m2)     1.00 1.00
  Overweight (25– < 30 kg/m2)     0.98 (0.83,1.17) 0.98 (0.82,1.17)
  Obese (>30–50 kg/m2)     0.78 (0.64,0.95) 0.77 (0.63,0.94)
 Smoking status
  Current smoker     1.00 1.00
  Ex-smoker     0.76 (0.57,1.03) 0.78 (0.57,1.05)
  Never smoker     0.76 (0.56,1.03) 0.77 (0.57,1.05)
Hospitalisation history (APDC, prior 6 years)
 Previous CVD
  Yes     1.41 (1.06,1.88) 1.44 (1.08,1.91)
  No     1.00 1.00
 Previous heart failure
  Yes     1.12 (0.94,1.32) 1.11 (0.93,1.31)
  No     1.00 1.00
 Previous renal disease
  Yes     1.12 (0.89,1.40) 1.11 (0.89,1.39)
  No     1.00 1.00
 Previous anaemia
  Yes     1.36 (1.13,1.62) 1.36 (1.14,1.63)
  No     1.00 1.00
 Previous dementia
  Yes     0.66 (0.35,1.22) 0.66 (0.36,1.22)
  No     1.00 1.00
Index admission characteristics
 Primary diagnosis
  Yes     0.94 (0.81,1.08) 0.93 (0.80,1.07)
  No     1.00 1.00
 Current comorbidity (Charlson Index)
  None     1.00 1.00
  Mild-moderate     1.15 (0.98,1.35) 1.15 (0.98,1.35)
  Severe     1.25 (1.02,1.52) 1.26 (1.03,1.54)
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital peer group
  Principal referral      1.00
  Major city      0.92 (0.72,1.18)
  District      1.03 (0.81,1.31)
  Community      1.34 (0.99,1.81)
  Private      0.80 (0.63,1.01)
  Others      0.72 (0.48,1.09)
 Heart failure service
  Yes      1.10 (0.93,1.31)
  No      1.00
  1. ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, MOR median odds ratio, PCV proportional change in variance