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Table 2 Logistic regression on providers of antenatal care services

From: Providers of antenatal care services in Ghana: evidence from Ghana demographic and health surveys 1988–2014

Variable Doctors Nurses TBA No one
Odds ratio (confidence interval) Odds ratio (confidence interval) Odds ratio (confidence interval) Odds ratio (confidence interval)
Age
 15–19 0.90 (0.72–1.14) 0.83 (0.65–1.05) 0.63 (0.28–1.43) 1.19 (0.82–1.76)
 20–24 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 25–29 1.18** (1.03–1.36) 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.93 (0.61–1.45) 0.73** (0.58–0.93)
 30–34 1.49*** (1.26–1.75) 1.01 (0.85–1.21) 0.76 (0.43–1.32) 0.61** (0.46–0.81)
 35–39 1.54*** (1.29–1.87) 1.08 (0.89–1.32) 1.02 (0.56–1.84) 0.51*** (0.37–0.69)
 40–44 1.45** (1.15–1.81) 0.93 (0.74–1.16) 1.39 (0.73–2.63) 0.65** (0.47–0.91)
 45–49 1.41** (1.03–1.93) 0.93 (0.70–1.23) 1.63 (0.77–3.43) 0.64** (0.43–0.96)
Ecological Zone
 Coastal zone Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Forest zone 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 1.37*** (1.22–1.54) 1.71** (1.18–2.49) 0.66*** (0.54–0.82)
 Savannah zone 0.47*** (0.39–0.561) 1.22** (1.03–1.45) 2.68** (1.51–4.74) 1.14 (0.88–1.47)
Ethnicity
 Akan Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Ga/Dangme 1.26** (1.06–1.50) 0.65*** (0.54–0.78) 2.10** (1.28–3.46) 0.92 (0.62–1.36)
 Ewe 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 1.01 (0.61–1.69) 1.51** (1.18–1.94)
 Northern ethnic group 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 0.97 (0.83–1.15) 0.71 (0.42–1.21) 1.13 (0.88–1.46)
 Other 0.82 (0.62–1.07) 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 0.80 (0.35–1.83) 1.52 ** (1.06–2.17)
Education
 No education Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Primary 1.48*** (1.30–1.68) 1.5*** (1.33–1.72) 1.12 (0.78–3.46) 0.45*** (0.37–0.54)
 Secondary 1.55*** (1.30–1.68) 2.00*** (1.73–2.27) 0.51** (0.33–0.79) 0.15*** (0.11–0.20)
 Higher 2.40*** (1.82–3.16) 1.41** (1.02–1.96) 1 1
Occupation
 Not working Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Working 1.10 (0.96–1.24) 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 1.18 (0.78–1.80) 0.78** (0.64–0.96)
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Married 1.20** (1.04–1.38) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 1.47 (0.83–2.60) 0.56*** (0.44–0.70)
 Cohabitation 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 1.15 (0.96–1.39) 2.40** (1.31–4.43) 0.73** (0.55–0.97)
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Poorer 1.09 (0.94–1.28) 0.94 (0.82–1.22) 1.08 (0.70–1.68) 1.36** (1.11–1.66)
 Middle 1.26** (1.09–1.28) 0.88* (0.76–1.02) 1.65** (1.06–2.55) 1.33** (1.06–1.67)
 Richer 1.31** (1.12–1.53) 0.78** (0.67–0.91) 2.49*** (1.64–3.76) 1.85*** (1.49–2.31)
 Richest 1.88*** (1.60–2.21) 0.51*** (0.43–0.59) 2.59*** (1.65–4.05) 2.20*** (1.75–2.79)
Residence
 Urban Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 0.59*** (0.53–0.65) 0.79*** (0.71–0.89) 2.81*** (1.89–4.19) 3.51*** (1.59–3.43)
Parity
 One birth Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Two births 0.89 (0.78–1.03) 0.80** (0.68–0.94) 1.02 (0.64–1.63) 1.57** (1.19–2.08)
 Three births 0.82** (0.70–0.96) 0.86* (0.72–1.03) 0.67 (0.38–1.19) 1.77*** (1.30–2.42)
 Four births or more 0.60*** (0.51–0.71) 0.82** (0.68–0.99) 0.89 (0.51–1.56) 2.41*** (1.75–3.31)
Survey wave year
 1988 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1993 0.93 (0.81–1.05) 2.36*** (2.08–2.68) 0.02*** (0.02–0.03) 1.01 (0.84–1.19)
 1998 0.84 ** (0.74–0.95) 2.74*** (2.43–3.10) 0.03*** (0.03–0.04) 0.84* (0.71–1.00)
 2003 0.55*** (0.48–0.63) 4.21*** (3.71–4.78) 0.01*** (0.01–0.01) 0.57*** (0.47–0.68)
 2008 0.70*** (0.62–0.80) 3.44*** (3.02–3.92) 0.01*** (0.01–0.02) 0.27*** (0.21–0.35)
 2014 0.53*** (0.47–0.59) 8.05*** (7.08–9.15) 0.001*** (0.001–0.002) 0.21*** (0.17–0.26)
  1. Source: computed from GDHS 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2014
  2. Ref reference, OR Odds ratio *p < 0.10 **p < 0.05 ***p < 0.001