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Table 1 Background characteristics

From: Providers of antenatal care services in Ghana: evidence from Ghana demographic and health surveys 1988–2014

  Years
Variables 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 2014
  n = 2701 n = 1974 n = 2374 n = 2743 n = 2131 n = 4294
  (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Age
 15–19 6.0 7.4 4.6 4.5 4.8 4.5
 20–24 22.1 22.9 22.3 19.3 19.2 17.0
 25–29 26.5 25.8 26.1 24.6 26.5 24.2
 30–34 19.5 22.5 18.5 21.9 20.5 23.4
 35–39 14.7 12.8 15.9 16.5 17.2 18.8
 40–44 7.3 6.6 9.3 8.8 8.2 9.2
 45–49 3.9 2.0 3.3 4.4 3.6 2.9
Ecological Zone
 Coastal Zone 45.6 39.0 45.9 37.1 39.7 45.2
 Forest Zone 40.6 38.5 38.0 40.2 38.3 36.3
 Savannah zone 13.8 22.5 16.1 22.7 22.0 18.5
Residence
 Urban 28.4 28.5 26.1 35.9 40.2 46.2
 Rural 71.6 71.5 73.9 64.1 59.8 53.8
Education
 No education 44.1 40.2 36.5 38.7 30.6 26.1
 Primary 50.7 54.1 20.3 22.3 24.4 19.6
 Secondary 4.6 5.0 42.1 37.9 42.6 49.7
 Higher 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.1 2.4 4.6
Wealth Status
 Poorest - 17.6 13.5 24.5 22.8 21.0
 Poorer - 15.7 19.7 21.1 21.9 20.3
 Middle - 18.4 23.8 20.2 19.1 20.0
 Richer - 23.9 23.2 17.9 20.8 19.6
 Richest - 24.4 19.8 16.3 15.4 19.1
Marital Status
 Single 11.8 8.8 12.3 10.9 12.5 16.8
 Married 82.2 76.3 71.6 79.4 68.0 61.7
 Cohabitation 6.0 14.9 16.1 9.7 19.5 21.5
Parity
 One birth 19.0 20.1 22.3 21.6 22.2 22.8
 Two births 17.2 20.1 20.3 19.3 20.9 20.4
 Three births 15.3 16.2 14.4 16.1 16.7 17.8
 Four or more births 48.5 43.6 43.0 43.0 40.2 39.0
Ethnicity
 Akan 51.4 48.4 52.4 47.1 46.6 47.4
 Ga/Dangme 8.3 6.8 7.6 7.6 5.0 6.4
 Ewe 15.3 13.6 14.3 11.9 13.0 13.2
 Northern Ethnic Group 15.3 28.7 23.1 26.4 31.7 31.1
 Other 9.7 2.5 2.6 7.0 3.7 1.9
Occupation
 Not workinga 45.6 20.0 13.8 11.3 10.4 17.5
 Working 54.4 80.0 86.2 88.7 89.6 82.5
 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
  1. Source: Computed from GDHS 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 20
  2. Not working a = not involved in paid employment