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Table 4 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models of achievement of ANC4+ (Continued Care at Pregnancy) with various determinants within each of the two waves of PDHS during 2006-2012

From: Continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan: analysis of trends and determinants from 2006 to 2012

Characteristics Model I (ANC4+)
PDHS (2006/07) PDHS (2012/13)
Bivariate Multivariate Bivariate Multivariate
OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value OR CI (95%) p-value AOR CI (95%) p-value
Regions/Provinces
 Baluchistan 1    1    1    1   
 Punjab 4.39 3.32-5.79 <0.01 3.01 2.21-4.10 <0.01 3.94 3.27-4.74 <0.01 2.42 1.94-3.03 <0.01
 Sindh 4.95 3.73-6.57 <0.01 4.96 3.63-6.77 <0.01 5.17 4.27-6.25 <0.01 4.30 3.45-5.36 <0.01
 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2.71 2.01-3.66 <0.01 2.27 1.64-3.16 <0.01 2.37 1.95-2.88 <0.01 2.00 1.59-2.50 <0.01
 Gilgit Baltistan - - - - - - 3.27 2.62-4.08 <0.01 3.69 2.84-4.79 <0.01
 Islamabad - - - - - - 21.01 15.97-27.65 <0.01 6.70 4.86-9.23 <0.01
Geographical classification
 Rural 1    1    1    1   
 Urban 3.52 3.12-3.97 <0.01 1.37 1.17-1.60 <0.01 3.20 2.90-3.52 <0.01 1.20 1.04-1.38 0.01
Respondents age
 15-24 years 1    1    1    1   
 25-34 years 1.23 1.06-1.41 <0.01 1.17 0.96-1.43 0.12 1.06 0.94-1.18 0.35 1.04 0.88-1.24 0.62
 35 years and above 0.77 0.65-0.92 <0.01 1.10 0.83-1.46 0.51 0.74 0.64-0.85 <0.01 1.02 0.79-1.31 0.86
Respondents age at first birth
 Less than 20 years 1    1    1    1   
 20-29 years 1.48 1.31-1.67 <0.01 0.95 0.81-1.12 0.54 1.92 1.74-2.13 <0.01 1.18 1.04-1.36 0.01
 30 years and above 1.45 1.05-2.00 0.02 1.12 0.73-1.72 0.60 3.86 2.98-5.00 <0.01 1.51 1.04-2.19 0.03
Respondents educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 2.46 2.07-2.92 <0.01 1.37 1.13-1.67 <0.01 2.85 2.47-3.29 <0.01 1.44 1.22-1.69 <0.01
 Secondary 5.13 4.34-6.06 <0.01 1.92 1.56-2.36 <0.01 6.37 5.58-7.28 <0.01 2.14 1.80-2.54 <0.01
 Higher 14.46 11.22-18.62 <0.01 3.63 2.67-4.99 <0.01 16.20 13.51-19.43 <0.01 3.22 2.53-4.09 <0.01
Husbands educational status
 Uneducated 1    1    1    1   
 Primary 1.48 1.21-1.81 <0.01 0.99 0.80-1.23 0.95 1.76 1.49-2.09 <0.01 1.07 0.88-1.29 0.48
 Secondary 2.74 2.35-3.20 <0.01 1.36 1.13-1.64 <0.01 3.29 2.88-3.75 <0.01 1.34 1.14-1.57 <0.01
 Higher 5.67 4.74-6.77 <0.01 1.53 1.21-1.93 <0.01 6.25 5.42-7.20 <0.01 1.23 1.01-1.49 0.03
Respondents employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 0.67 0.59-0.77 <0.01 0.98 0.83-1.16 0.85 0.68 0.62-0.77 <0.01 0.92 0.78-1.07 0.27
Husbands employment status
 Unemployed 1    1    1    1   
 Employed 1.18 0.84-1.65 0.34 0.94 0.64-1.39 0.77 1.67 1.22-2.29 0.01 1.22 0.84-1.77 0.30
Parity/Number of children
 5 children or more 1    1       1   
 3-4 children 1.61 1.38-1.88 <0.01 0.97 0.80-1.18 0.82 1.97 1.73-2.23 <0.01 1.09 0.92-1.29 0.30
 1-2 children 1.89 1.64-2.18 <0.01 1.16 0.92-1.46 0.20 3.15 2.80-3.55 <0.01 1.66 1.35-2.03 <0.01
Respondents autonomy to healthcare decision-making
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 1.76 1.60-1.94 <0.01 1.26 1.12-1.42 <0.01
Exposure to mass media
 No - - - - - - 1    1   
 Yes - - - - - - 0.48 4.24-5.45 <0.01 1.45 1.24-1.70 <0.01
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1    1    1    1   
 Poorer 1.54 1.21-1.95 <0.01 1.49 1.16-1.92 <0.01 1.93 1.59-2.32 <0.01 1.41 1.14-1.74 <0.01
 Middle 2.32 1.84-2.94 <0.01 1.94 1.50-2.52 <0.01 2.99 2.49-3.58 <0.01 1.83 1.46-2.28 <0.01
 Richer 5.25 4.21-6.56 <0.01 3.15 2.42-4.11 <0.01 6.28 5.27-7.50 <0.01 2.64 2.08-3.36 <0.01
 Richest 15.42 12.33-19.28 <0.01 6.07 4.50-8.19 <0.01 20.88 17.33-25.14 <0.01 5.27 3.98-6.98 <0.01
Distance from health facility for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 2.76 2.50-3.05 <0.01 0.88 0.74-1.04 0.13
Transport arrangement for medical care
 Big problem - - - - - - 1    1   
 Not a big problem - - - - - - 2.92 2.65-3.22 <0.01 1.21 1.03-1.44 0.02