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Table 3 Association of three levels of Continuum of care (CoC) with various key determinants within each of the two waves of PDHS during 2006-2012

From: Continuum of care in maternal, newborn and child health in Pakistan: analysis of trends and determinants from 2006 to 2012

Characteristics PDHS (2006/07)          PDHS (2012/13)         
  n=5,724 n=7,461
  Care at pregnancy Care at delivery Complete Continued Care Care at pregnancy Care at delivery Complete Continued Care
  Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea Cont. Care Discont. Care p-valuea
  % % % % % %
Geographical classification
 Urban 56.2 26.7 <0.01 63.2 27.9 <0.01 64.9 29.7 <0.01 61.3 33.1 <0.01 64.8 34.1 <0.01 65.2 35.9 <0.01
 Rural 43.8 73.3   36.8 72.1   35.1 70.3   38.7 66.9   35.2 65.9   34.8 64.1  
Respondents age
 15-24 years 23.3 24.5 <0.01 23.4 24.3 <0.01 22.8 24.4 <0.01 23.5 22.6 <0.01 23.6 22.6 <0.01 23.7 22.6 <0.01
 25-34 years 57.2 49   58.7 49.2   60.8 49.4   56.3 51.2   56.6 51.6   56.1 52.0  
 35 years and above 19.4 26.5   17.8 26.5   16.4 26.3   20.2 26.2   19.8 25.8   20.1 25.3  
Respondents age at first birth
 Less than 20 years 37.7 47.3 <0.01 32.4 47.6 <0.01 29.8 47.2 <0.01 29.6 45.8 <0.01 27.5 45.3 <0.01 25.3 44.9 <0.01
 20-29 years 58.6 49.6   63.2 49.3   66.0 49.7   64.7 51.9   66.0 52.5   67.7 52.8  
 30 years and above 3.7 3.2   4.4 3.1   4.2 3.2   5.7 2.3   6.4 2.2   6.9 2.3  
Respondents educational status
 Uneducated 41.2 76.3 <0.01 33.4 74.9 <0.01 31.6 72.8 <0.01 29.3 71.4 <0.01 24.3 69.9 <0.01 22.2 67.7 <0.01
 Primary 16.7 12.6   16.7 13.0   16.3 13.3   15.7 13.4   15.0 13.9   15.2 13.9  
 Secondary 24.8 8.9   27.7 9.7   27.9 10.8   29.7 11.4   31.6 12.2   31.2 13.6  
 Higher 17.3 2.2   22.3 2.3   24.2 3.2   25.4 3.8   29.2 4.0   31.4 4.8  
Husbands educational status
 Uneducated 20.5 42.8 <0.01 16.1 41.8 <0.01 15.4 40.4 <0.01 15.7 40.3 <0.01 12.6 39.4 <0.01 11.5 38.1 <0.01
 Primary 12.4 17.5   11.0 17.4   10.2 17.1   10.7 15.5   9.6 15.5   9.4 15.2  
 Secondary 38 29   39.1 29.4   38.2 30.1   38.0 29.6   38.1 30.4   38.2 30.8  
 Higher 29.1 10.7   33.7 11.4   36.1 12.3   35.6 14.6   39.6 14.8   40.9 15.9  
Respondents employment status
 Unemployed 77.0 69.3 <0.01 80.0 69.3 <0.01 78.9 70.2 <0.01 83.3 77.2 <0.01 85.1 76.9 <0.01 84.4 77.7 <0.01
 Employed 23.0 30.7   20.0 30.7   21.1 29.8   16.7 22.8   14.9 23.1   15.6 22.3  
Husbands employment status
 Unemployed 3.0 3.5 0.34 2.9 3.5 0.34 2.2 3.5 0.05 1.9 3.1 <0.01 1.8 3.0 <0.01 1.5 3.1 <0.01
 Employed 97.0 96.5   97.1 96.5   97.8 96.5   98.1 96.9   98.2 97.0   98.5 96.9  
Parity/Number of children
 1-2 children 42.4 32.8 <0.01 47.2 32.5 <0.01 48.2 33.2 <0.01 49.6 30.7 <0.01 52.5 30.9 <0.01 53.8 31.9 <0.01
 3-4 children 30.6 27.7   30.6 27.9   31.6 27.8   30.3 30.0   30.2 30.2   30.1 30.2  
 5 children or more 27.0 39.5   22.2 39.7   20.2 39.0   20.1 39.3   17.3 38.9   16.1 37.9  
Respondents autonomy to healthcare decision-making
 Yes - - - - - - - - - 52.3 38.3 <0.01 54.1 38.9 <0.01 54.0 39.8 <0.01
 No - - - - - - - - - 47.7 61.7   45.9 61.1   46.0 60.2  
Exposure to mass media
 Yes - - - - - - - - - 87.4 59.1 <0.01 89.9 60.5 <0.01 91.2 62.0 <0.01
 No - - - - - - - - - 12.6 40.9   10.1 39.5   8.8 38.0  
Wealth quintile
 Richest 40.8 9.0 <0.01 48.6 10.1 <0.01 51.4 11.9 <0.01 40.1 7.7 <0.01 44.8 8.5 <0.01 48.2 9.5 <0.01
 Richer 24.8 16.1   24.8 17.0   23.7 17.6   24.5 15.6   25.0 16.2   24.6 17.0  
 Middle 14.6 21.4   12.7 21.2   12.4 20.8   15.8 21.2   14.5 21.5   13.6 21.3  
 Poorer 11.5 25.6   8.8 24.8   7.5 24.1   12.0 24.9   10.7 24.1   8.9 24.0  
 Poorest 8.2 27.9   5.0 26.9   4.9 25.6   7.6 30.6   5.0 29.7   4.6 28.2  
Distance from health facility for medical care
 Big problem -   -    - - - - 28.7 52.7 <0.01 25.2 52.0 <0.01 23.9 50.9 <0.01
 Not a big problem -   -    - - - - 71.3 47.3   74.8 48.0   76.1 49.1  
Transport arrangement for medical care
 Big problem -   -    - - - - 31.8 57.7 <0.01 28.3 56.9 <0.01 27.1 55.5 <0.01
 Not a big problem -   -    - - - - 68.2 42.3   71.7 43.1   72.9 44.5  
  1. aChi-square test was applied to measure p-value