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Table 9 Association between Medicare managed care and inpatient mortality for pneumonia

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 1.032 0.982 1.085 1.072 1.019 1.128 0.989 0.932 1.050 1.047 0.992 1.105
Age 18–64 years 0.64 0.585 0.701 0.648 0.592 0.71 0.654 0.596 0.717 0.667 0.609 0.731
Age 65–74 years REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Age 75–84 years 1.245 1.175 1.319 1.239 1.169 1.314 1.238 1.167 1.314 1.228 1.158 1.303
Age 85+ years 1.859 1.754 1.969 1.845 1.742 1.956 1.816 1.711 1.928 1.802 1.699 1.912
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Female 0.964 0.925 1.004 0.967 0.928 1.007 0.974 0.934 1.015 0.968 0.929 1.009
APRMORT_137xxx 24.16 18.166 32.131 24.55 18.459 32.652 28.237 21.203 37.605 27.485 20.65 36.58
APRMORT_139002 4.943 3.72 6.569 4.984 3.75 6.624 5.066 3.810 6.737 5.1 3.836 6.781
APRMORT_139003 19.988 15.087 26.481 20.675 15.605 27.394 22.743 17.150 30.161 22.143 16.703 29.35
APRMORT_139004 89.745 67.731 118.92 94.095 71.003 124.7 113.230 85.336 150.241 105.916 79.868 140.5
APRMORT_OTHER 118.202 89.115 156.78 126.055 95.007 167.25 139.748 105.195 185.649 135.944 102.388 180.5
Lowest income 0.963 0.907 1.022 0.913 0.858 0.972 0.920 0.847 0.999 0.956 0.884 1.034
Low income 0.97 0.917 1.026 0.908 0.857 0.963 0.978 0.908 1.054 0.984 0.916 1.058
Moderate income 0.942 0.891 0.996 0.923 0.872 0.976 0.999 0.934 1.068 0.989 0.928 1.054
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
0-99 beds     1.15 1.075 1.23     1.269 1.174 1.372
100-299 beds     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
300-499 beds     0.942 0.892 0.995     0.968 0.909 1.03
500+ beds     0.987 0.917 1.062     0.948 0.873 1.03
Nonteaching     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
Teaching     0.882 0.834 0.933     0.903 0.844 0.967
Governmental     1.215 1.125 1.311     1.067 0.974 1.169
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
For-profit     1.051 0.973 1.135     1.048 0.956 1.148
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF       
Medium and small metropolitan     1.042 0.993 1.093       
Nonmetropolitan     1.17 1.085 1.263       
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania