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Table 5 Association between Medicare managed care and inpatient mortality for acute myocardial infarction

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 0.969 0.919 1.021 0.982 0.931 1.036 0.979 0.922 1.039 0.983 0.929 1.040
Age 18–64 years 1.012 0.908 1.129 1.018 0.913 1.135 1.030 0.922 1.151 1.025 0.918 1.145
Age 65–74 years (REF) REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Age 75–84 years 1.198 1.125 1.276 1.196 1.123 1.273 1.194 1.120 1.272 1.190 1.117 1.268
Age 85+ years 1.362 1.276 1.453 1.352 1.267 1.444 1.354 1.266 1.447 1.339 1.253 1.431
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Female 0.959 0.916 1.003 0.958 0.916 1.003 0.957 0.914 1.002 0.963 0.920 1.008
APRMORT_165002 0.332 0.144 0.768 0.339 0.147 0.783 0.343 0.148 0.793 0.334 0.144 0.771
APRMORT_165003 1.673 1.004 2.787 1.706 1.024 2.843 1.795 1.076 2.994 1.721 1.032 2.869
APRMORT_165004 16.335 10.790 24.728 16.742 11.058 25.347 18.402 12.135 27.905 17.412 11.487 26.392
APRMORT_174001 0.251 0.145 0.433 0.255 0.147 0.440 0.258 0.149 0.445 0.254 0.147 0.438
APRMORT_174002 0.823 0.532 1.274 0.837 0.541 1.295 0.862 0.557 1.335 0.838 0.541 1.297
APRMORT_174003 3.123 2.060 4.733 3.179 2.097 4.818 3.347 2.206 5.077 3.278 2.161 4.971
APRMORT_174004 33.770 22.759 50.108 34.426 23.199 51.087 38.038 25.605 56.509 36.594 24.639 54.349
APRMORT_190002 3.350 2.231 5.031 3.333 2.219 5.005 3.328 2.215 5.000 3.355 2.233 5.040
APRMORT_190003 8.975 6.061 13.290 8.898 6.009 13.177 9.044 6.103 13.401 9.090 6.135 13.468
APRMORT_190004 41.875 28.301 61.960 42.068 28.430 62.247 45.052 30.424 66.714 44.977 30.376 66.596
APRMORT_OTHER 12.857 8.627 19.162 13.113 8.797 19.545 13.865 9.292 20.689 13.436 9.008 20.041
Lowest income 1.021 0.956 1.089 1.003 0.937 1.073 0.991 0.913 1.075 1.010 0.928 1.099
Low income 1.049 0.986 1.115 1.031 0.967 1.100 1.037 0.961 1.119 1.060 0.980 1.146
Moderate income 0.997 0.938 1.061 0.998 0.938 1.062 0.982 0.915 1.054 0.997 0.929 1.069
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
0-99 beds     1.168 1.062 1.284     1.185 1.067 1.315
100-299 beds     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
300-499 beds     1.009 0.952 1.070     1.019 0.953 1.090
500+ beds     1.029 0.954 1.109     1.066 0.979 1.160
Nonteaching     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
Teaching     0.931 0.878 0.988     0.908 0.846 0.975
Governmental     1.279 1.173 1.396     1.207 1.094 1.332
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
For-profit     0.995 0.908 1.092     0.971 0.873 1.081
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF       
Medium and small metropolitan     0.993 0.944 1.046       
Nonmetropolitan     1.104 1.008 1.209       
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania