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Table 12 Association between private managed care and inpatient mortality for congestive heart failure

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 0.621 0.549 0.704 0.643 0.567 0.729 Failed to converge Failed to converge
Age 18–44 years 1.012 0.74 1.386 0.989 0.722 1.354     
Age 45–64 years REF REF REF REF REF REF     
Age 65+ years 2.036 1.785 2.322 2.131 1.865 2.435     
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF     
Female 1.165 1.035 1.312 1.172 1.041 1.32     
APRMORT_161xxx 2.649 1.686 4.162 2.498 1.586 3.932     
APRMORT_191xxx 2.739 1.803 4.162 2.612 1.716 3.975     
APRMORT_194002 2.32 1.613 3.337 2.32 1.613 3.337     
APRMORT_194003 5.392 3.775 7.703 5.366 3.756 7.666     
APRMORT_194004 28.071 19.641 40.12 28.013 19.592 40.053     
APRMORT_OTHER 9.41 6.374 13.894 8.99 6.078 13.298     
Lowest income 0.736 0.619 0.876 0.713 0.596 0.853     
Low income 0.82 0.699 0.961 0.829 0.703 0.977     
Moderate income 0.859 0.736 1.004 0.854 0.73 1.000     
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF     
0-99 beds     1.009 0.803 1.266     
100-299 beds     REF REF REF     
300-499 beds     0.983 0.834 1.158     
500+ beds     1.089 0.885 1.34     
Nonteaching     REF REF REF     
Teaching     1.144 0.967 1.354     
Governmental     1.601 1.289 1.988     
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF     
For-profit     0.716 0.53 0.966     
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF     
Medium and small metropolitan     1.121 0.975 1.289     
Nonmetropolitan     0.804 0.618 1.045     
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania