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Table 10 Association between private managed care and inpatient mortality for pneumonia

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristic Patient characteristicsa Patient + hospital characteristicsb Patient characteristic + hospital fixed effects Patient + hospital characteristics + county fixed effects
Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits Point estimate 95% Wald confidence limits
Managed care 0.904 0.817 1.00 0.889 0.802 0.985 0.828 0.724 0.947 0.875 0.78 0.98
Age 18–44 years 0.396 0.33 0.476 0.393 0.328 0.472 0.374 0.308 0.454 0.393 0.326 0.474
Age 45–64 years REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Age 65+ years 1.57 1.408 1.751 1.573 1.409 1.757 1.654 1.457 1.878 1.54 1.371 1.731
Male REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
Female 0.988 0.894 1.093 0.992 0.897 1.097 1.040 0.933 1.158 1.012 0.912 1.123
APRMORT_137xxx 88.389 46.656 167.452 88.596 46.759 167.866 109.154 57.155 208.459 101.242 53.279 192.383
APRMORT_139002 31.018 16.5 58.31 30.906 16.44 58.103 32.666 17.294 61.701 31.239 16.585 58.841
APRMORT_139003 140.387 75.185 262.133 140.697 75.342 262.744 172.269 91.576 324.066 155.064 82.832 290.284
APRMORT_139004 570.545 304.621 >999.999 576.589 307.753 >999.999 851.446 450.071 >999.999 687.987 365.93 >999.999
APRMORT_OTHER 517.875 277.751 965.593 518.855 278.119 967.97 669.828 355.990 >999.999 606.831 324.27 >999.999
Lowest income 0.811 0.697 0.943 0.832 0.712 0.972 0.870 0.714 1.060 0.937 0.775 1.134
Low income 0.798 0.696 0.914 0.822 0.713 0.947 0.917 0.769 1.093 0.89 0.751 1.055
Moderate income 0.911 0.801 1.035 0.931 0.818 1.06 1.014 0.870 1.181 1.009 0.872 1.168
High income REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
0-99 beds     1.214 1.018 1.447     1.2 0.971 1.483
100-299 beds     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
300-499 beds     1.012 0.883 1.159     1.026 0.879 1.198
500+ beds     0.892 0.749 1.062     0.851 0.699 1.035
Nonteaching     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
Teaching     1.221 1.063 1.402     1.204 1.021 1.419
Governmental     1.323 1.103 1.587     1.305 1.052 1.62
Not-for-profit     REF REF REF     REF REF REF
For-profit     0.868 0.699 1.079     0.87 0.68 1.113
Large metropolitan     REF REF REF       
Medium and small metropolitan     0.844 0.747 0.953       
Nonmetropolitan     0.879 0.718 1.077       
  1. Abbreviation: REF, reference group
  2. Notes: aPatient characteristics were age, sex, All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), and community income. bHospital characteristics were bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban/rural location
  3. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania