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Table 1 Demographic and hospital characteristics of populations in Medicare and private insurance, 2009

From: Managed care and inpatient mortality in adults: effect of primary payer

Characteristica,b Medicare managed care (n = 168,700) Medicare fee for service (n = 562,610)   Private managed care (n = 84,170) Private fee for service (n = 115,244)  
Mean, % SE Mean, % SE p Mean, % SE Mean, % SE p
Age in years, mean 78.04 0.02 77.43 0.02 * 57.98 0.05 57.96 0.04  
Sex, %
 Female 52.33 0.12 53.51 0.07 * 41.39 0.17 39.78 0.15 *
Median household income by ZIP Code, %
 Lowest (<$39,999) 22.61 0.10 22.70 0.06   18.30 0.13 19.06 0.12 *
 Low ($40,000-$49,999) 24.10 0.10 26.42 0.06 * 21.93 0.14 26.58 0.13 *
 Moderate ($50,000-$65,999) 26.41 0.11 26.03 0.06 * 28.20 0.16 27.08 0.13 *
 High (>$66,000) 26.88 0.11 24.85 0.06 * 31.56 0.16 27.28 0.13 *
Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure 10.82 0.08 11.89 0.04 * 5.19 0.08 4.90 0.06 *
 Chronic pulmonary disease 32.14 0.11 34.52 0.06 * 24.07 0.15 24.89 0.13 *
 Hypertension 70.49 0.11 67.61 0.06 * 59.03 0.17 56.11 0.15 *
 Peripheral vascular disease 11.44 0.08 10.18 0.04 * 6.00 0.08 5.64 0.07 *
 Diabetes with chronic complications 25.99 0.11 28.17 0.06 * 23.20 0.15 23.67 0.13 *
 Diabetes without chronic complications 10.21 0.07 7.17 0.03 * 7.89 0.09 5.15 0.07 *
 Hypothyroidism 15.40 0.09 15.80 0.05 * 8.52 0.10 8.82 0.08 *
 Renal failure 27.76 0.11 27.78 0.06   14.44 0.12 12.28 0.10 *
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders 24.49 0.11 27.87 0.06 * 21.71 0.14 22.30 0.12 *
 Obesity 8.07 0.07 8.10 0.04   15.61 0.13 14.20 0.10 *
 Deficiency anemias 23.24 0.10 24.99 0.06 * 16.52 0.13 14.09 0.10 *
 Depression 8.01 0.07 9.49 0.04 * 8.40 0.10 8.51 0.08  
Hospital location, %
 Large central metropolitan 53.77 0.12 37.87 0.07 * 57.58 0.17 36.78 0.14 *
 Large fringe metropolitan 19.88 0.10 19.34 0.05 * 17.90 0.13 20.44 0.12 *
 Medium metropolitan 18.47 0.10 23.81 0.06 * 18.34 0.13 25.83 0.13 *
 Small metropolitan 3.15 0.04 6.96 0.03 * 1.97 0.05 6.46 0.07 *
 Micropolitan 3.78 0.05 9.42 0.04 * 3.14 0.06 8.67 0.08 *
 Not metropolitan or micropolitan 0.95 0.02 2.60 0.02 * 1.08 0.04 1.82 0.04 *
Hospital ownership, %
 Government 6.13 0.06 7.25 0.03 * 5.85 0.08 7.05 0.08 *
 Private, not-for-profit 87.55 0.08 86.07 0.05 * 86.26 0.12 87.93 0.10 *
 Private, for-profit 6.32 0.06 6.68 0.03 * 7.89 0.09 5.01 0.06 *
Hospital teaching, %
 Teaching 46.25 0.12 37.35 0.07 * 46.47 0.17 43.48 0.15 *
Number of hospital beds, %
  < 100 6.58 0.06 11.76 0.04 * 6.33 0.08 8.79 0.08 *
 100-299 37.97 0.12 38.75 0.07 * 35.44 0.17 36.18 0.14 *
 300-499 32.91 0.12 28.28 0.06 * 33.13 0.16 28.69 0.13 *
 500+ 22.54 0.10 21.21 0.05 * 25.10 0.15 26.34 0.13 *
  1. Abbreviation: SE, standard error
  2. aPatient characteristics were age, sex, community income, and All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG)
  3. bHospital characteristics were urban/rural location, ownership, teaching status, and bed size
  4. *p < 0.05
  5. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, 2009, from the following 11 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania