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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for determinants of health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD)

From: Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study

  Outcome = HFD Outcome = SBD
  Adjusted ORs 95% CI Adjusted ORs 95% CI
Exposure variable     
Health insurance ownership (ref = none)     
 Jamkesmas 1.19* 1.03–1.37 1.17* 1.01–1.35
Independent variables     
Age Group (ref = 20–34)     
 15–19 1.11 0.78–1.57 0.92 0.64–1.33
 35–49 1.19* 1.01–1.40 1.13 0.96–1.33
Marital Status (ref = married)     
 Not married 2.66 0.22–31.86 n/a n/a
 Other 1.07 0.78–1.46 0.91 0.66–1.24
Education Level (ref = none)     
 Completed or some primary 1.68* 1.09–2.59 2.25*** 1.59–3.17
 Completed or some secondary 3.30*** 2.13–5.12 5.64*** 3.64–8.07
 Higher 6.43*** 3.57–11.58 10.68*** 5.37–21.26
Wealth Quintile (ref = first/lowest wealth quintile)     
 Second 1.67*** 1.44–1.93 1.70*** 1.45–1.99
Employment Status in Last 12 Months (ref = currently employed)     
 Not currently employed, but worked in last 12 months 0.86 0.70–1.05 0.90 0.71–1.14
 Did not work in last 12 months 0.78** 0.67–0.92 0.65*** 0.56–0.76
Sex of HH head (ref = male)     
 Female 1.08 0.83–1.39 1.01 0.77–1.31
Household Number (ref = 1–4 members)     
 5 or more members 0.74*** 0.64–0.86 0.76** 0.65–0.89
Exposure to Newspaper (ref = none)     
 Less than once a week 0.95 0.80–1.12 1.14 0.94–1.37
 At least once a week 1.03 0.73–1.47 1.22 0.81–1.84
Exposure to Radio (ref = none)     
 Less than once a week 1.27** 1.07–1.51 1.05 0.88–1.26
 At least once a week 1.30* 1.04–1.62 1.18 0.93–1.50
Exposure to Television (ref = none)     
 Less than once a week 1.34 0.99–1.71 1.46** 1.11–1.90
 At least once a week 1.31 0.99–1.71 1.89*** 1.59–2.40
Residence (ref = urban)     
 Rural 0.38*** 0.32–0.46 0.57*** 0.47–0.70
Provincial Jamkesmas Coverage (ref = low)     
 High 1.13 0.97–1.32 0.76** 0.64–0.89
  1. Controlling for women’s exposure to health insurance, age, marital status, education level, wealth, residence, employment status, sex of household head, household number, media exposure to newspaper, radio, and television, type of residence, and provincial Jamkesmas coverage
  2. n/a = too few observations to report meaningful results
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001