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Table 4 Characteristics associated with reasons for not undergoing surgery (due to affordability, accessibility and fear/no trust, respectively), using univariate logistic regression. The reference group consisted of individuals who underwent surgery

From: Barriers to surgical care in Nepal

Characteristics associated with not having surgery
   Affordability   Accessibility   Fear/no trust  
   Study group 1a   Study group 2a   Study group 3a  
Household characteristics b Crude Odds Ratioc (CI) P-value Crude Odds Ratioc (CI) p-value Crude Odds Ratioc (CI) P-value
Rural village type    2.59 (1.03–6.54) .044   
Travel time to secondary health facility (hours)    1.17 (1.07–1.27) <.001   
Cost for tertiary transport    1.22 (1.03–1.43) .021   
Travel time to tertiary health facility (hours)    1.09 (1.03–1.15) .003   
Individual characteristics b       
Female gender       3.54 (1.54–8.15) .003
Education    .002   .028   
  None 5.77 (2.14–15.58) .001 2.72 (1.14–6.49) .024   
  Primary 2.24 (0.77–6.53) .141 0.88 (0.32–2.41) .797   
  Secondary or higher Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.   
  1. aFor the dependent variables, the reference group had the value ‘0’, while the study groups had the value ‘1’;
  2. bCharacteristics that were tested, but did not show any significant results with either of the study groups, were ‘Number of household members’, ‘Motorised transport to secondary health facility’, ‘Cost for secondary transport’, ‘Waiting time for (secondary) transport’, ‘Motorised transport to tertiary health facility’, ‘Waiting time for (tertiary) transport’, and ‘Age’. Non-Motorised transport includes bicycle, animal and on foot, opposed to motorised transport (public and private motorised transport). Ethnicity was not included in the analyses due to the relatively large number of groups. Occupation was not included since it represents socio-economic status, similar to education. Availability of transport money was not included due to the relatively large size of the group ‘not applicable’;
  3. cOnly statistically significant odds ratios are presented in the table