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Table 5 Baseline characteristics of patients utilizing Zaitaku and hospital care for short (10 days), medium (11-29days), long (30 days)-term periods

From: Cost of physician-led home visit care (Zaitaku care) compared with hospital care at the end of life in Japan

  Zaitaku care Hospital care
Characteristics Short-term
(n = 9)
Medium-term
(n = 7)
Long-term
(n = 17)
p-value Short-term
(n = 13)
Medium-term
(n = 16)
Long-term
(n = 43)
p-value
Age (mean) 71.0 ± 15.5 82.3 ± 6.1 85.5 ± 10.3 0.024** 74.9 ± 10.7 83.8 ± 9.0 80.5 ± 8.8 0.008**
Gender     0.011*     0.529*
 Female (%, n) 66.7% (n = 6) 14.3% (n = 1) 35.3% (n = 6)   46.2% (n = 6) 50.0% (n = 8) 34.9% (n = 15)  
 Male (%, n) 33.3% (n = 3) 85.7% (n = 6) 64.7% (n = 11)   53.8% (n = 7) 50.0% (n = 8) 65.1% (n = 28)  
Diagnosis (%, n)
 Cancer 66.7% (n = 6) 71.4% (n = 5) 64.7% (n = 11) 1.000* 76.9% (n = 10) 37.5% (n = 6) 39.5% (n = 17) 0.057*
 Dementia 33.3% (n = 3) 28.6% (n = 2) 47.1% (n = 8) 0.715* 15.4% (n = 2) 56.2%(n = 9) 41.9% (n = 18) 0.075*
Oxygen (%, n) 33.3% (n = 3) 42.9% (n = 3) 35.3% (n = 6) 1.000* 61.5% (n = 8) 87.5% (n = 14) 69.8% (n = 30) 0.271*
Infusion fluid (%, n) 88.9% (n = 8) 71.4% (n = 5) 88.2% (n = 15) 0.675* 84.6% (n = 11) 87.5% (n = 14) 100.0% (n = 43) 0.023*
Opioids (%, n) 66.7% (n = 6) 28.6% (n = 2) 35.3% (n = 6) 0.303* 76.9% (n = 10) 37.5% (n = 6) 30.2% (n = 13) 0.011*
Antibiotics (%, n) 22.2% (n = 2) 42.9% (n = 3) 23.5% (n = 4) 0.595* 7.7% (n = 1) 43.8% (n = 7) 48.8% (n = 21) 0.022*
  1. *p-values were calculated using analysis of the Fisher’s exact test
  2. **p-value was calculated using analysis of the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test
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