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Table 5 Reasons for self-referral categorized in themes

From: Motives for self-referral to the emergency department: a systematic review of the literature

Study Country N (total) Percentages per theme
Ref. nr. Author Health concerns Expecting investigations Convenience of the ED Lesser accessibility of primary care No confidence in GP/primary care Advice from others Financial considerations
[13] De Valk The Netherlands 436 2 28 16 7 4 3  
[33] Hunt2 USA 990 7   13 11    
[12] Coleman UK 255 11 48 13 5   43  
[16] O’Halloran UK 124 11   30   21 6  
[36] Shah Kuwait 1146 11   13 8    
[33] Hunt USA 548 15   20 12    
[18] Stewart UK 585 16   10 10    
[24] Wilkinson UK 213 17   14 14 2 11  
[22] Rajpar UK 54 22 4 6 50    
[20] Van der Linden The Netherlands 1751 27   34     
[25] Ward UK 339 27    22 4 12  
[3] Moll van Charante The Netherlands 224 30 36 16 4    
[15] Laffoy Ireland 395 35 18 14     1
[21] Singh UK 217 41 24 7 18   7  
[35] Lee Hong Kong 726 44   12    - 3
[14] McGuigan UK 196 48   6 5   35  
[27] Norredam Denmark 2746 63    13    
[39] Rassin Israel 73 63   47    69  
[38] Masso Australia 397 67 51 8 8    3
[31] Northington USA 279 74       42
[37] Siminski Australia 400 80 74 21 16    9
[32] Ragin USA 1536 95   87     25
[17] Rieffe The Netherlands 430 -       -
[29] Grant USA 112 -   - -    -
[5] Jaarsma van Leeuwen The Netherlands 1068   28   11 3   
[26] Myers UK 150   47 2 21   9  
[23] Shipman UK 82   - - -    
[28] Mestitz UK 770   - -     
[19] Thomson UK 147    24     
[30] Howard USA 31    - -   -  
[34] Koziol-McLain USA 30    -    -  
  1. - = Reported, but no percentages given/qualitative study