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Table 3 Results of the meta-analysis, showing per theme the number of patients and studies and the percentage of patients indicating this theme as reason for their visit to the ED

From: Motives for self-referral to the emergency department: a systematic review of the literature

Theme Number of studies Number of patients in these studies % patients 95% CI (%) I2 (%) 95% PI (%)
Health concerns 22 5564 36 23 – 50 99.7 0 – 94
Expecting investigations (radiological/blood tests) 10 1316 35 20 – 51 98.1 1 – 85
Advice of others 9 346 19 6 – 37 97.9 0 – 80
Convenience of ED 21 2939 18 11 – 26 99.5 0 – 62
Accessibility of GP 17 1744 13 9 – 18 92.4 0 – 36
Financial considerations 6 575 11 1 – 30 99.1 0 – 74
No confidence in GP 5 93 5 1 – 15 90.9 0 – 40
  1. CI Confidence Interval
  2. I2: the percentage of the total variation across studies due to heterogeneity; it takes values from 0-100% with the value of 0% indicating no observed heterogeneity
  3. PI Prediction interval: expected 95% range of outcomes, where the results of a new study would fall within