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Table 1 Selected studies, investigating motives for self-referral to the ED

From: Motives for self-referral to the emergency department: a systematic review of the literature

  Article Country, year of publication Method Number of patients Inclusion/exclusion
Europe
1 Mestitz [28] UK 1957 Questions asked by casualty medical officer 975 (770 SRPs) Only adults?
2 Wilkinson et al. [24] UK 1977 Interviews, using questionnaires 546 (213 SRPs) All ages
Non-urgent
3 Myers et al. [26] UK 1982 Question asked 150 Only adults?
4 Singh [21] UK 1988 Interviews, using semi-structured questionnaire 217 All ages
5 O’Halloran et al. [16] UK 1989 Postal questionnaires 145 (124 SRPs) Age: 18 months to 16 years.
Acute asthma
6 Stewart et al. [18] UK 1989 Questionnaires 853 (585 SRPs) Children
7 Thomson et al. [19] UK 1995 Questionnaires 245 (147 SRPs) Only adults?
Non-urgent
8 Ward et al. [25] UK 1996 Question asked by treating physician 970
(339 patients answered question)
All ages
Non-urgent
9 Laffoy et al. [15] Ireland 1997 Questionnaires, interviewer-administered 557 (395 SRPs) All ages
10 Shipman et al. [23] UK 1997 Telephone interviews, semi-structured 82 All ages
11 Rieffe et al. [17] Netherlands 1999 Questionnaires, Likert scale 430 Only adults?
Non-urgent
12 Jaarsma-van Leeuwen et al. [5] Netherlands 2000 Questionnaires 1068 All ages
Only surgical patients
13 Rajpar et al. [22] UK 2000 Interviews, using semi-structured questionnaire 54 All ages
Non-urgent
14 Coleman et al. [12] UK 2001 Questionnaires 255 Adults
Non-urgent
15 Norredam et al. [27] Denmark 2007 Questionnaire 3426 (2746 SRPs) Age > 14 years
Non-urgent
16 Moll van Charante et al. [3] Netherlands 2008 Postal questionnaires 808 (224 SRPs) All ages
17 Mc Guigan et al. [14] UK 2010 Interviews by telephone, semi-structured 196 Age > 16 years
Non-urgent
18 van der Linden et al. [20] Netherlands 2014 Open question by triage nurse 3028
(1751 patients answered question)
All ages
19 de Valk et al. [13] Netherlands 2014 Questionnaires 436 Age > 18 years
North America
20 Hunt et al. [33] USA 1996 Questionnaires 1538 All ages
21 Koziol-McLain et al. [34] USA 2000 Interviews, qualitative methodology 30 Age > 18 years
Non-urgent
22 Northington et al. [31] USA 2004 Questionnaire + brief interview 279 Age > 18 years
Non-urgent
23 Howard et al. [30] USA 2005 Interviews, qualitative methodology 31 Age 18–50 years
Non-urgent
24 Ragin et al. [32] USA 2005 Interviews + questionnaires with Likert scale 1536 Age > 18 years
25 Grant et al. [29] USA 2010 Interviews, qualitative methodology 112 Children
Non-urgent
Asia
26 Shah et al. [36] Kuwait 1996 Questionnaires, open ended question 1146 Only adults?
27 Lee et al. [35] Hong Kong 2000 Telephone interviews, using questionnaires 2410
(726 patients answered question)
All ages
Non-urgent
Australia
28 Masso et al. [38] Australia 2007 Questionnaire, Likert scale 397 All ages
Non-urgent
29 Siminski et al. [37] Australia 2008 Questionnaires 400 All ages
Non-urgent
Other
30 Rassin et al. [39] Israel 2005 Questionnaire 73 Age > 18 years
Non-urgent
  1. SRPs self-referred patients