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Table 3 Comparison of crude and adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence interval) between the baseline and time-varying covariate (TVC) models for all 17 individual Charlson comorbidities

From: Effects of longitudinal changes in Charlson comorbidity on prognostic survival model performance among newly diagnosed patients with hypertension

  Baseline TVC
  cHRa (95 % CI) aHRb
((95 % CI)
cHRa ((95 % CI) aHRb
((95 % CI)
 Sex (Male) 1.15 (1.14-1.17 1.23 (1.22-1.26) 1.15 (1.14-1.17) 1.15 (1.14-1.17)
 Age 1.05 (1.05-1.06) 1.04 (1.04-1.04) 1.06 (1.05-1.06) 1.03 (1.03-1.03)
Region of Residence
 Urban 1.01 (.99-1.03) 1.10 (1.08-1.12) 1.01 (.99-1.03) 1.09 (1.07-1.11)
Income Quintile
 (Compared to 1- Lowest)     
 2 .88 (.86-.90) .95 (.93-.98) .88 (.86-.90) .97 (.95-.99)
 3 .81 (.79-.83) .92 (.90-.94) .81 (.79-.83) .94 (.92-96)
 4 .69 (.67-.71) .86 (.85-.89) .69 (.67-.71) .91 (.88-.95)
 5 – Highest Income Quintile .65 (.63-.66) .85 (.82-.87) .65 (.63-.66) .93 (.90-.95)
Charlson Comorbidities
 Myocardial infarction 2.2 (2.15-2.25) 1.07 (1.05-1.1) 2.89 (2.84-2.94) 1.2 (1.18-1.22)
 Congestive heart failure 4.19 (4.11-4.27) 1.77 (1.73-1.81) 5.21 (5.13-5.29) 1.88 (1.84-1.92)
 Peripheral vascular disease 2.99 (2.9-3.07) 1.24 (1.2-1.28) 3.31 (3.24-3.38) 1.16 (1.14-1.19)
 Cerebrovascular disease 2.87 (2.8-2.93) 1.28 (1.24-1.31) 3.65 (3.59-3.72) 1.41 (1.38-1.43)
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 7.64 (7.43-7.85) 2.36 (2.29-2.43) 8.82 (8.66-8.98) 2.89 (2.83-2.95)
 Dementia 1.88 (1.85-1.91) 1.31 (1.29-1.34) 2.16 (2.12-2.19) 1.3 (1.28-1.32)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.69 (1.61-1.76) 1.18 (1.13-1.24) 1.62 (1.56-1.67) 1.03 (0.99-1.07)
 Rheumatologic disease 1.67 (1.61-1.73) 1.1 (1.06-1.14) 2.02 (1.96-2.07) 1.1 (1.08-1.13)
 Peptic ulcer disease 2.31 (2.21-2.42) 1.69 (1.6-1.78) 2.66 (2.58-2.74) 1.56 (1.51-1.62)
 Diabetes without chronic complications 2.18 (2.13-2.23) 1.3 (1.27-1.33) 2.16 (2.12-2.2) 1.1 (1.07-1.12)
 Diabetes with chronic complications 3.27 (3.14-3.4) 1.41 (1.35-1.48) 3.8 (3.71-3.9) 1.27 (1.23-1.31)
 Renal disease 3.45 (3.28-3.62) 1.44 (1.36-1.52) 4.18 (4.04-4.33) 1.36 (1.31-1.41)
 Any malignancy, including leukemia and lymphoma 3.52 (3.41-3.64) 1.63 (1.57-1.69) 4.78 (4.68-4.87) 1.72 (1.69-1.76)
 Metastatic solid tumor 3.11 (3.04-3.18) 1.5 (1.47-1.54) 4.49 (4.42-4.57) 1.87 (1.83-1.90)
 Mild liver disease 5.7 (5.23-6.21) 1.97 (1.79-2.17) 7.1 (6.73-7.49) 2.1 (1.98-2.23)
 Moderate or severe liver disease 8.34 (8.04-8.65) 3.58 (3.43-3.73) 13.26 (12.99-13.53) 5.15 (5.03-5.28)
 AIDS/HIV 1.86 (1.42-2.44) 1.72 (1.28-2.31) 2 (1.62-2.46) 1.65 (1.32-2.06)
  1. acHR crude hazard ratio AIC Akaike Information Criterion
  2. baHR adjusted hazard ratio-adjusted model included sex age area of residence and median household income