Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline characteristics and in-hospital management for household economic hardship

From: The household economic burden for acute coronary syndrome survivors in Australia

  Hardship
(n = 350, 51 %)
No-hardship
(n = 331, 49 %)
P-value
Age, mean (SD) 63 (14) 67 (12) 0.0001
Age
 18–59 years 138 (39) 93 (28) 0.0006
 60–69 years 96 (27) 81 (24)  
 70–79 years 71 (20) 108 (33)  
 80+ years 45 (13) 49 (15)  
Male 224 (64) 197 (60) 0.2287
No private insurance 224 (67) 162 (49) <.0001
Work status at 18 months
 Employed 79 (24) 90 (28) <.0001
 Unemployed 61 (19) 18 (6)  
 Retired 186 (57) 213 (66)  
Education
 No education or primary school only 49 (15) 47 (15) 0.9233
 Secondary school only 152 (46) 152 (48)  
 TAFE diploma or certificate 74 (22) 65 (20)  
 University degree 55 (17) 56 (18)  
Pensioner concession card 222 (67) 195 (59) 0.0425
IRSD (5 groups)
 1 (most disadvantaged) 72 (21) 48 (15) 0.0028
 2 104 (30) 72 (22)  
 3 80 (23) 83 (25)  
 4 57 (16) 81 (24)  
 5 (least disadvantaged) 35 (10) 47 (14)  
Medical history
 GRACE risk score (risk categories)
  Low 237 (68) 203 (61) 0. 0528
  Intermediate 91 (26) 94 (28)  
  High 20 (6) 34 (10)  
 Current smoker 74 (21) 36 (11) 0.0003
 Hypertension 225 (64) 197 (60) 0.2001
 Hyperlipidemia 202 (58) 186 (56) 0.6887
 Diabetes 93 (27) 77 (23) 0.3187
 Prior CVDa 180 (51) 148 (45) 0.0796
 Other Comorbiditiesb 63 (18) 49 (15) 0.2607
Diagnosis
 STEMI 28 (8) 38 (11) 0.4650
 NSTEMI 62 (18) 60 (18)  
 UA 91 (26) 84 (25)  
 Other 169 (48) 149 (45)  
In-hospital management
 Cardiac catheterization 140 (40) 142 (43) 0.4425
 Revascularizationc 74/140 (53) 78/142 (55) 0.7270
 4 or more EBM at discharge 164 (47) 149 (45) 0.6297
In-hospital events
 In hospital eventsd 52 (15) 44 (13) 0.5577
  1. Data are shown as frequency and proportion (%) unless otherwise specified
  2. SD standard deviation, IRSD index of relative socio-economic disadvantage, GRACE global registry of acute coronary events, IQI inter-quartile interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, STEMI ST elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, UA unstable angina, EBM evidence based medications
  3. aPrior CVD: prior myocardial infarction, prior peripheral vascular disease, prior stroke, prior PCI, prior CABG or prior atrial fibrillation
  4. bOther Comorbidities: prior renal failure, prior major bleeding, prior active cancer, prior dementia or prior impaired mobility
  5. cRevascularization: PCI or CABG
  6. dIn hospital events: myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, renal failure, major bleeding or cardiac arrest