Skip to main content

Table 4 Logistic regression for prescription access among adults with kidney disease (KD) by geographical status

From: Geographic variation in access among adults with kidney disease: evidence from medical expenditure panel survey, 2002–2011

Variables Odds ratio 95 % CI p value
Primary independent variables
 Northeast (ref)
 Midwest 0.77 0.47–1.24 0.284
 South 0.68 0.46–1.0 0.051
 West 0.64 0.40–1.02 0.064
Covariates
Age    
 Age 18–44 (ref)
 Age 45–64 1.21 0.83–1.76 0.310
 Age 65–85 2.6*** 1.65–4.06 <0.001
Gender    
 Female 0.85 0.64–1.13 0.278
Race/ethnicity    
 Non-Hispanic White (ref)
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.13 0.80–1.61 0.463
 Hispanic 1.5* 1.0–2.18 0.049
 Others 0.97 0.51–1.82 0.934
Marital Status    
 Married (ref)
 Not married a 0.57** 0.39–0.82 0.003
 Never married 0.84 0.54–1.29 0.436
Education    
  < High school (ref)
 High school 1.26 0.87–1.81 0.209
 College or more 1.43 0.98–2.09 0.059
Insurance Status    
 Private (ref)
 Public insured 0.77 0.53–1.11 0.164
 Uninsured 0.36*** 0.23–0.56 <0.001
MSA status    
 MSA 0.95 0.66–1.36 0.807
Poverty Category    
 Poor/NEA (ref)
 Low Income 1.14 0.75–1.72 0.519
 Middle Income 1.14 0.77–1.70 0.500
 High Income 1.22 0.75–1.96 0.408
Chronic Conditions b    
 Diabetes 0.67* 0.50–0.91 0.011
 Hypertension 0.72 0.51–1.0 0.051
 CVD 0.80 0.57–1.13 0.214
 Stroke 1.06 0.70–1.61 0.763
 Emphysema 0.88 0.47–1.65 0.705
 Joint Pain 0.55*** 0.39–0.76 <0.001
 Arthritis 1.05 0.75–1.45 0.759
 Asthma 0.51** 0.35–0.75 0.001
Year    
 Year 2002/03 (ref)
 Year 2004/05 1.30 0.87–1.94 0.193
 Year 2006/07 1.65* 1.08–2.52 0.019
 Year 2008/09 2.02** 1.32–3.10 0.001
 Year 2010/11 1.50 0.96–2.35 0.074
  1. *Level of significance p < 0.05; **level of significance p < 0.01, ***level of significance p < 0.001
  2. aNon-married stands for widowed/divorced and separated
  3. bReference for each chronic conditions was not having that specific condition