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Table 3 Logistic regression model for medical access to care among adults with kidney disease (KD) by geographical status

From: Geographic variation in access among adults with kidney disease: evidence from medical expenditure panel survey, 2002–2011

Variables Odds ratio 95 % CI p value
Primary independent variables
 Northeast (ref)
 Midwest 0.60** 0.40–0.88 0.009
 South 0.62** 0.44–0.88 0.008
 West 0.50*** 0.34–0.72 <0.001
Covariates
Age    
 Age 18–44 (ref)
 Age 45–64 1.80*** 1.39–2.32 <0.001
 Age 65–85 2.70*** 1.91–3.82 <0.001
Gender    
 Female 1.22* 1.0–1.48 0.048
Race/ethnicity    
 Non-Hispanic White (ref)
 Non-Hispanic Black 1.10 0.78–1.54 0.578
 Hispanic 0.99 0.72–1.36 0.975
 Others 0.55** 0.35–0.85 0.009
Marital Status    
 Married (ref)
 Not married a 0.65** 0.50–0.85 0.002
 Never married 0.62** 0.47–0.83 0.001
Education    
  < High school (ref)
 High school 0.95 0.72–1.26 0.769
 College or more 0.91 0.68–1.21 0.542
Insurance Status    
 Private (ref)
 Public insured 1.04 0.79–1.37 0.754
 Uninsured 0.22*** 0.16–0.30 <0.001
MSA status    
 MSA 1.0 0.76–1.33 0.945
Poverty Category    
 Poor/NEA (ref)
 Low Income 1.11 0.78–1.56 0.547
 Middle Income 1.25 0.93–1.68 0.124
 High Income 1.46* 1.05–2.03 0.024
Chronic Conditions b    
 Diabetes 1.0 0.74–1.34 0.749
 Hypertension 1.52*** 1.20–1.93 <0.001
 CVD 1.08 0.85–1.38 0.510
 Stroke 0.88 0.59–0.94 0.437
 Emphysema 0.70 0.39–1.26 0.241
 Joint Pain 0.75* 0.59–0.94 0.014
 Arthritis 1.19 0.92–1.54 0.166
 Asthma 0.92 0.67–1.26 0.626
Year    
 Year 2002/03 (ref)
 Year 2004/05 0.99 0.70–1.40 0.975
 Year 2006/07 0.93 0.66–1.32 0.715
 Year 2008/09 0.95 0.68–1.31 0.770
 Year 2010/11 0.88 0.63–1.24 0.491
  1. *Level of significance p < 0.05; **level of significance p < 0.01, ***level of significance p < 0.001
  2. aNon-married stands for widowed/divorced and separated
  3. bReference for each chronic conditions was not having that specific condition