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Table 2 Logistic regression model for usual source of care among adults with kidney disease (KD) by geographical status

From: Geographic variation in access among adults with kidney disease: evidence from medical expenditure panel survey, 2002–2011

Variables Odds ratio 95 % CI p value
Primary independent variables
 Northeast (ref)
 Midwest 0.56* 0.35–0.89 0.016
 South 0.48** 0.32–0.72 0.001
 West 0.53** 0.34–0.84 0.007
Covariates
Age    
 Age 18–44 (ref)
 Age 45–64 2.0*** 1.48–2.85 <0.001
 Age 65–85 2.95*** 1.96–4.43 <0.001
Gender    
 Female 1.43** 1.10–1.87 0.008
Race/ethnicity    
 Non-Hispanic White (ref)
 Non-Hispanic Black 0.92 0.58–1.48 0.753
 Hispanic 0.71 0.49–1.02 0.071
 Others 0.65 0.38–1.11 0.119
Marital Status    
 Married (ref)
 Not married a 0.64* 0.45–0.93 0.019
 Never married 0.61** 0.44.–0.84 0.003
Education    
  < High school (ref)
 High school 0.86 0.60–1.22 0.403
 College or more 0.82 0.58–1.15 0.262
Insurance Status    
 Private (ref)
 Public insured 1.02 0.70–1.49 0.909
 Uninsured 0.28*** 0.20–0.40 <0.001
MSA status    
 MSA 1.10 0.79–1.55 0.544
Poverty Category    
 Poor/NEA (ref)
 Low Income 1.13 0.74–1.72 0.543
 Middle Income 1.33 0.93–1.92 0.115
 High Income 1.44 0.94–2.18 0.086
Chronic Conditions b    
 Diabetes 1.47* 1.02–2.12 0.034
 Hypertension 2.08*** 1.53–2.81 <0.001
 CVD 1.56** 1.09–2.21 0.014
 Stroke 1.05 0.49–2.23 0.896
 Emphysema 0.37* 0.16–0.86 0.022
 Joint Pain 1.12 0.83–1.51 0.444
 Arthritis 1.38 0.97–1.97 0.071
 Asthma 1.35 0.89–2.05 0.148
Year    
 Year 2002/03 (ref)
 Year 2004/05 0.93 0.62–1.41 0.766
 Year 2006/07 0.72 0.48–1.08 0.117
 Year 2008/09 0.65* 0.43–0.97 0.039
 Year 2010/11 0.80 0.52–1.22 0.306
  1. *Level of significance p < 0.05; **level of significance p < 0.01, ***level of significance p < 0.001
  2. aNon-married stands for widowed/divorced and separated
  3. bReference for each chronic conditions was not having that specific condition