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Table 1 Sample demographics by geographical region among U.S. adults with kidney disease (KD)

From: Geographic variation in access among adults with kidney disease: evidence from medical expenditure panel survey, 2002–2011

Variables All (%) Northeast (%) Midwest (%) South (%) West (%) P-value
N (n) 4,251,128 (4404) 797,487 (683) 880,779 (869) 1,746,049 (1870) 826,813 (982)  
Age category
 Age 18–44 29.6 29.7’ 30.1 29.7 29.0 0.799
 Age 45–64 36.6 38.7 37.5 36.0 34.5  
 Age 65–85 33.8 31.6 32.4 34.3 36.5  
Gender
 Male 51.2 49.8 52.8 51.2 50.9 0.885
 Female 48.8 50.2 47.2 48.8 49.1  
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 73.6 75.9 83.2 73.0 62.5 <0.001
 Non-Hispanic Black 11.3 9.7 11.8 14.4 5.5  
 Hispanic 11.1 10.6 3.1 9.8 22.9  
 Other 4.0 3.8 1.9 2.8 9.1  
Marital status
 Married 56.9 57.4 60.5 55.1 56.5 0.254
 Non-married a 28.6 25.0 27.0 30.7 29.5  
 Never married 14.5 17.6 12.5 14.2 14.0  
Education category
  < High school 21.9 17.8 20.4 24.2 22.7 0.011
 High school 33.1 40.3 35.1 30.3 29.8  
 College or more 45.0 41.9 44.5 45.5 47.5  
Insurance
 Private 64.4 68.9 67.5 64.0 57.4 <0.001
 Public 28.2 26.1 28.3 26.7 33.3  
 Uninsured 7.4 5.0 4.2 9.3 9.3  
Metropolitan statistical status
 MSA 81.3 86.3 73.1 81.1 85.6 0.014
 Non-MSA 18.7 13.7 26.9 18.9 14.4  
Poverty category
 Poor/NEA 19.6 18.5 16.9 20.3 22.4 <0.001
 Low Income 15.5 14.1 17.7 15.1 15.2  
 Middle Income 28.6 26.1 29.6 29.0 28.8  
 High Income 36.3 41.3 35.8 35.6 33.6  
Chronic conditions
 Diabetes 28.9 25.6 28.3 29.6 31.5  
 Hypertension 56.1 52.2 56.2 56.6 59.0 0.347
 CVD 30.4 28.3 29.9 30.6 32.3 0.679
 Stroke 8.4 7.9 8.3 7.8 10.1 0.642
 Emphysema 4.1 3.2 3.2 4.7 4.3 0.457
 Joint pain 51.0 44.6 51.9 52.8 52.6 0.022
 Arthritis 41.9 39.9 44.1 43.5 38.2 0.162
 Asthma 11.5 11.0 10.0 11.9 12.8 0.521
Year category
 Year 2002/03 17.7 18.4 18.9 17.6 16.0 0.901
 Year 2004/05 18.4 17.3 19.6 18.5 17.8  
 Year 2006/07 19.3 20.9 19.1 18.6 19.5  
 Year 2008/09 20.9 22.2 20.6 20.0 22.0  
 Year 2010/11 23.7 21.2 21.8 25.3 24.7  
Access
 Usual source of care 89.7 93.4 90.6 88.1 88.8 0.004
 Medical access 82.1 88.1 82.6 81.2 77.9 <0.001
 Prescription access 91.8 94.4 92.2 90.8 90.8 0.064
  1. N-weighted sample size; n-unweighted sample size; %, weighted percentage
  2. aNon-married stands for widowed/divorced and separated