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Table 2 Participant characteristics by level of patient activation

From: Patient activation in older people with long-term conditions and multimorbidity: correlates and change in a cohort study in the United Kingdom

Demographic Variable PAM Level  
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Total n
N % N % N % N % N %
Gender
 Male 253 14.7 288 16.7 821 47.6 362 21.0 1724 47.8
 Female 332 17.6 353 18.7 857 45.4 344 18.2 1886 52.2
Living alone
 Yes 234 18.1 229 17.7 609 47.1 221 17.1 1293 35.9
 No 351 15.2 411 17.8 1070 46.3 480 20.8 2312 64.1
Employment status
 Working 13 7.6 24 13.9 86 50 49 28.5 172 4.6
 Retired or not economically active 553 16.5 603 17.9 1552 46.3 646 19.3 3554 94.3
 Other 15 36.6 4 9.8 17 41.5 5 12.2 41 1.1
Health Literacy
 Never or rarely need help 317 11.2 494 17.4 1392 48.9 639 22.5 2842 80.5
 Sometimes or often need help 108 29.1 77 20.8 150 40.4 36 9.7 371 10.5
 Always need help 144 45.3 59 18.6 90 28.3 25 7.9 318 9.0
Social Support
 Poor social support 251 22.1 226 19.9 517 45.5 142 12.5 1136 32.7
 Good Social support 318 13.6 397 16.9 1092 46.6 535 22.8 2342 67.3
Depression
 Not Depressed 180 8.8 309 15.1 1051 51.4 504 24.6 2044 57.2
 Depressed 393 25.7 333 22.8 605 39.6 198 12.9 1529 42.8
Number of LTC1
 LTC 2 or more 103 11.2 149 16.23 451 49.2 214 23.3 917 28.6
446 19.5 443 19.4 1019 44.6 376 16.5 2284 71.4
Continuous Variables Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age in years 76.4 8.1 74.9 6.7 74.3 6.5 73.1 6.1 75 6.8