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Table 6 The four levels of patient activation

From: Patient activation in Europe: an international comparison of psychometric properties and patients’ scores on the short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13)

Level 1 Individuals tend to be passive and feel overwhelmed by managing their own health.
They may not understand their role in the care process.
Level 2 Individuals may lack the knowledge and confidence to manage their health.
Level 3 Individuals appear to be taking action but may still lack the confidence and skill to support their behaviours.
Level 4 Individuals have adopted many of the behaviours needed to support their health but may not be able to maintain them in the face of life stressors