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Table 6 Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models of health centre and client level factors associated with top quartile delivery of guideline-scheduled generalist physical checks (N = 15,622 clients, 162 health centres)

From: Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting

  Model A empty Model B adjusted Model C adjusted
  Fixed effects OR (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI)
Audit Year 2005/2006 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2007 2.45 (1.98–3.03)** 1.75 (1.39–2.20)** 1.82 (1.45–2.29)**
2008 3.20 (2.61–3.93)** 1.97 (1.54–2.50)** 2.10 (1.64–2.68)**
2009 5.09 (4.15–6.25)** 2.96 (2.30–3.80)** 3.05 (2.37–3.92)**
2010 5.11 (4.10–6.36)** 2.87 (2.18–3.76)** 2.89 (2.20–3.79)**
2011 5.12 (4.19–6.26)** 2.99 (2.28–3.92)** 2.99 (2.28–3.93)**
2012 6.56 (5.37–8.04)** 2.86 (2.09–3.90)** 2.86 (2.10–3.91)**
2013 9.77 (7.92–12.03)** 3.86 (2.78–5.36)** 3.81 (2.74–5.29)**
2014 9.57 (7.41–12.34)** 3.86 (2.67–5.59)** 3.79 (2.62–5.48)**
Health Centre Characteristics
Location X duration of CQI participation
 Non-remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.77 (1.40–2.24)** 1.71 (1.35–2.17)**
≥3 cycles   2.13 (1.49–3.03)** 2.02 (1.42–2.89)**
 Remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.36 (0.90–2.05) 1.35 (0.90–2.04)
≥3 cycles   1.35 (0.84–2.15) 1.35 (0.85–2.16)
 Governance Community-Controlled   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Government operated   0.73 (0.48–1.11) 0.74 (0.49–1.13)
 Service population ≤500   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
501–999   1.01 (0.67–1.52) 1.01 (0.67–1.51)
≥1000   0.72 (0.49–1.05) 0.71 (0.49–1.04)
 % Clients attending in past 6 months <97 %   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥97 %   1.39 (1.25–1.55)** 1.38 (1.23–1.54)**
Client Characteristics
 Sex Male    1.00 (reference)
Female    1.02 (0.95–1.10)
 Age ≥15- < 25    1.00 (reference)
≥25- < 40    1.09 (0.81–1.47)
≥40- < 55    1.43(1.06–1.92)*
≥55    1.52 (1.13–2.05)**
 Indigenous Status Non-Indigenous    1.00 (reference)
Indigenous    1.27 (1.06–1.51)**
 Comorbidity None    1.00 (reference)
One or more    1.31 (1.19–1.44)**
 Complications No complications    1.00 (reference)
1–2 complications    1.16 (1.03–1.30)*
>2 complications    0.90 (0.74–1.09)
Random effects (intercepts)
  State (variance (SE)) 0.80 (0.55) 0.39 (0.28) 0.39 (0.28)
MORSTATE 2.34 1.82 1.82
 PCV (% explained variance) - 51 % 51 %
 Health Centre (variance (SE)) 0.90 (0.12) 0.79 (0.11) 0.78 (0.11)
  MORHC 2.47 2.34 2.32
 PCV (% explained variance) - 12 % 14 %
 State & Health Centre (variance) 1.70 1.19 1.17
  MORSTATE-HC 3.47 2.83 2.81
 PCV (% explained variance) - 30 % 31 %
  Patient (variance (SE)) 0.11 (0.05) 0.14 (0.05) 0.07 (0.03)
  1. MOR (Median odds ratio): odds of receiving ‘top quartile’ service delivery if patient was to change health centre or jurisdiction; PCV (Proportional change in variance): percent variation explained in odds for better health care delivery by introduction of health centre or patient level factors
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p = <0.01