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Table 5 Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models of health centre and client level factors associated with top quartile delivery of guideline-scheduled laboratory tests (N = 15,622 clients, 162 health centres)

From: Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting

  Model A empty Model B adjusted Model C adjusted
  Fixed effects OR (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI)
Audit Year 2005/2006 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2007 0.86 (0.71–1.05) 0.77 (0.62–0.95)* 0.80 (0.65–0.99)*
2008 0.87 (0.72–1.04) 0.76 (0.61–0.93)** 0.80 (0.65–0.99)*
2009 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 0.94 (0.75–1.17)
2010 1.23 (1.02–1.49)* 1.03 (0.82–1.30) 1.03 (0.82–1.30)
2011 0.81 (0.69–0.97)** 0.73 (0.58–0.92)** 0.72 (0.57–0.91)**
2012 1.26 (1.05–1.50)* 1.01 (0.77–1.32) 0.99 (0.75–1.29)
2013 1.67 (1.40–2.00)** 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 1.22 (0.92–1.63)
2014 1.82 (1.45–2.28)** 1.49 (1.08–2.06)* 1.44 (1.04–1.99)*
Health Centre Characteristics
Location X duration of CQI participation
 Non-remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   1.03 (0.82–1.28) 0.99 (0.79–1.23)
≥3 cycles   0.91 (0.66–1.26) 0.87 (0.63–1.21)
 Remote Baseline   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles   4.43 (3.06–6.41)** 4.59 (3.17–6.63)**
≥3 cycles   4.68 (3.07–7.14)** 4.84 (3.18–7.37)**
 Governance Community-Controlled   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Government operated   0.76 (0.53–1.08) 0.78 (0.55–1.11)
 Service population ≤500   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
>500- < 1000   1.24 (0.88–1.76) 1.23 (0.87–1.73)
≥1000   1.16 (0.84–1.61) 1.17 (0.84–1.61)
 % Clients attending in past 6 months <97 %   1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥97 %   1.39 (1.26–1.54)** 1.38 (1.25–1.53)**
Client Characteristics
 Sex Male    1.00 (reference)
Female    1.06 (0.99–1.14)
 Age ≥15- < 25    1.00 (reference)
≥25- < 40    1.12 (0.85–1.47)
≥40- < 55    1.27 (0.97–1.67)
≥55    1.39 (1.06–1.82)*
 Indigenous Status Non-Indigenous    1.00 (reference)
Indigenous    1.07 (0.91–1.26)
 Comorbidity None    1.00 (reference)
One or more    1.38 (1.27–1.51)**
 Complications None    1.00 (reference)
1–2 complications    1.18 (1.06–1.32)**
>2 complications    1.24 (1.03–1.48)*
Random effects (intercepts)
  State (variance (SE)) 0.51 (0.37) 0.16 (0.13) 0.15 (0.12)
MORSTATE 1.97 1.46 1.44
 PCV (% explained variance) - 70 % 72 %
 Health Centre (variance (SE)) 0.96 (0.14) 0.56 (0.09) 0.55 (0.09)
  MORHC 2.55 2.04 2.02
 PCV (% explained variance) - 42 % 43 %
 State & Health Centre (variance) 1.470 0.717 0.692
  MORSTATE-HC 3.18 2.24 2.21
 PCV (% explained variance) - 52 % 53 %
  Patient (variance (SE)) 0.39 (0.14) 0.19 (0.06) 0.11 (0.03)
  1. MOR (Median odds ratio): odds of receiving ‘top quartile’ service delivery if patient was to change health centre or jurisdiction; PCV (Proportional change in variance): percent variation explained in odds for better health care delivery by introduction of health centre or patient level factors
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. **p = <0.01