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Table 4 Unadjusted multilevel logistic regression models of health centre and client level factors associated with top quartile delivery of guideline-scheduled services

From: Improvement in delivery of type 2 diabetes services differs by mode of care: a retrospective longitudinal analysis in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care setting

  Laboratory testsa Generalist physical checksa Specialist physical checksa Counselling or education (nutrition and physical activity)a Counselling or education (high risk alcohol or tobacco use)b
  Fixed effects OR (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI) ORs (95 % CI)
Audit Year 2005/2006 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
2007 0.85 (0.71–1.05) 2.45 (1.98–3.03)** 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 1.68 (1.38–2.04)** 3.30 (2.23–4.88)**
2008 0.87 (0.72–1.04) 3.20 (2.61–3.93)** 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 1.69 (1.41–2.01)** 2.32 (1.67–3.21)**
2009 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 5.09 (4.15–6.25)** 1.26 (1.04–1.51)* 2.69 (2.24–3.23)** 2.33 (1.71–3.18)**
2010 1.23 (1.02–1.49(* 5.11 (4.10–6.36)** 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 2.69 (2.22–3.26)** 2.21 (1.59–3.09)**
2011 0.81 (0.69–0,97)** 5.12 (4.19–6.2)** 1.02 (0.85–1.21) 2.14 (1.80–2.54)** 2.25 (1.67–3.02)**
2012 1.26 (1.05–1.50)* 6.65 (5.37–8.04)** 1.29 (1.08–1.53)** 2.18 (1.83–2.59)** 2.25 (1.67–3.02)**
2013 1.67 (1.40–2.00)** 9.77 (7.92–12.03)** 1.64 (1.36–1.97)** 2.43 (2.36–4.12)** 2.76 (2.08–3.76)**
2014 1.82 (1.45–2.28)** 9.57 (7.41–12.34)** 1.65 (1.30–2.08)** 2.48 (1.98–3.12)** 2.41 (1.67–3.45)**
Health Centre Characteristics
Duration of CQI participation Baseline 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 cycles 1.47*1.35–1.61)** 2.40 (2.17–2.65)** 1.40 (1.28–1.53)** 1.89 (1.73–2.07)** 1.59 (1.36–1.85)**
≥3 cycles 1.54 (1.39–1.72)** 4.13 (3.66–4.66)** 1.48 (1.33–1.65)** 1.79 (1.61–2.00)** 1.77 (1.52–2.07)**
Location of health centre Non-remote 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)  
Remote 4.01(2.84–5.68)** 1.85 (1.25–2.74)** 1.66 (1.25–2.22)** 1.82 (1.26–2.63)** 1.16 (0.87–1.56)
Governance Community-Controlled 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Government operated 0.85 (0.54–1.33) 0.99 (0.64–1.54) 1.03 (0.74–1.43) 1.18 (0.80–1.75) 0.75 (0.57–0.98)*
Service population ≤500 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
>500– < 1000 1.08 (0.67–1.61) 1.00 (0.65–1.54) 0.88 (0.64–1.20) 0.89 (0.60–1.32) 0.94 (0.67–1.31)
≥1000 0.71 (0.49–1.04) 0.66 (0.45–0.96) 0.71 (0.54–0.93) 0.68 (0.48–0.97) 1.01 (0.76–1.34)
% Clients attending in past 6 months <97 % 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥97 % 1.59 (1.44–1.75)** 1.73 (1.56–1.92)** 1.61 (1.45–1.78)** 1.48 (1.34–1.64)** 1.13 (0.96–1.32)
Client Characteristics
Sex Male 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Female 1.08 (0.97–1.11) 0.99 (0.92–1.17) 1.09 (1.02–1.17) 1.00 (0.95–1.07) 0.99 (0.74–1.12)
Age ≥15- < 25 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
≥25- < 40 1.20 (0.91–1.57) 1.08 (0.81–1.45) 1.51 (1.15–1.96)** 1.37 (1.05–1.79)** 0.94 (0.59–1.48)
≥40- < 55 1.45 (1.11–1.88) 1.50 (1.13–1.99)** 2.26 (1.74–2.92)** 1.58 (1.12–2.04)** 1.05 (0.67–1.65)
≥55 1.62 (1.24–2.11)** 1.62 (1.22–2.15)** 3,27 (2,52–4.24)** 1.57 (0.53–1.34) 1.00 (0.63–1.58)
Indigenous Status Non-Indigenous 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Indigenous 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 1.35 (1.14–1.60)** 1.15 (0.98–1.35) 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 1.17 (0.84–1.64)
Comorbidity None 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
One or more 1.53 (1.41–1.67)** 1.52 (1.39–1.66)** 1.65 (1.52–1.79)** 1.46 (1.35–1.58)** 1.24 (1/11–1.39)**
Complications None 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
1–2 complications 1.27 (1.14–1.42)** 1.25 (1.11–1.40)** 2.62 (2.30–1.40)** 1,24 (1.11–1.39)** 1.12 (0.92–1.38)
>2 complications 1.35 (1.13–1.61)** 1.00 (0.82–1.20) 3.47 (2.76–4.35)** 1.08 (0.91–1.30) 1.19 (0.86–1.66)
  1. aN = 15,622 clients and 162 health centres
  2. bN = 5962 clients and 162 health centres
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. **p = <0.01
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