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Table 3 Second Objective - Changes in health status

From: The impact of the affordable care Act (ACA) on favorable risk selection and Beneficiaries’ health status in Medicare advantage: a preliminary assessment

Dependent Variable Focal Variablea Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
Effect (SE) Effect (SE) Effect (SE)
Self-Rated Health (SRH) Secular Trend −0.022 (0.002)*** −0.019 (0.002)*** −0.015 (0.002)***
Policy Measure 0.034 (0.002)*** 0.028 (0.002)*** 0.028 (0.002)***
Falls Secular Trend 1.034 (0.009)*** 1.029 (0.009)** 1.020 (0.009)*
Policy Measure 0.958 (0.008)*** 0.965 (0.008)*** 0.965 (0.008)***
Balance Problems Secular Trend 1.064 (0.009)*** 1.055 (0.009)*** 1.049 (0.009)***
Policy Measure 0.944 (0.008)*** 0.958 (0.008)*** 0.958 (0.008)***
Falls Management Secular Trend 1.093 (0.008)*** 1.083 (0.008)*** 1.073 (0.009)***
Policy Measure 0.951 (0.008)*** 0.971 (0.008)*** 0.981 (0.008)*
Frailty/disability Secular Trend 1.056 (0.006)*** 1.049 (0.006)*** 1.043 (0.006)***
Policy Measure 0.930 (0.005)*** 0.943 (0.005)*** 0.944 (0.005)***
Morbidity Score Secular Trend 1.005 (0.004) 1.004 (0.004) 1.005 (0.004)
Policy Measure 0.984 (0.004)*** 0.986 (0.004)*** 0.986 (0.004)***
  1. Significance level: * p-value <0.05 **; p-value <0.01; *** p-value <0.001. Due to space limitations, only focal variables of interest were displayed. Complete tables including coefficients of all included variables are available upon request
  2. aSecular Trend is a time-dependent indicator that captures any temporal changes in the outcomes of interest over time between 2007 and 2013; Policy Measure is the policy implementation measure (PIM) which reflects the changes in MA reimbursement
  3. bModel 1 includes (i) secular trend variable, (ii) policy effect, (iii) outcome indicator at baseline
  4. cModel 2 includes (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) demographics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and marital status)
  5. dModel 3 includes (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) health status (SRH, falls, balance problems, falls management, frailty [when Balance is the DV, ADL score is calculated excluding walking disability component], and morbidity). A health status adjustor variable is not included when it is the DV