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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics

From: The impact of the affordable care Act (ACA) on favorable risk selection and Beneficiaries’ health status in Medicare advantage: a preliminary assessment

Variable N (%)
Objective 1 Objective 2 at Baseline Objective 2 at Follow up
n = 1,658,453 n = 546,362 n = 546,362
 Age
  65 to 74 964,956 (58.2) 324,065 (59.3)  
  75 and older 693,497 (41.8) 222,297 (40.7)  
 Gender
  Female 938,226 (58.5) 318,329 (58.9)  
  Male 666,270 (41.5) 221,773 (41.1)  
 Race
  White 1,190,929 (81.1) 440,198 (83.3)  
  Black or African American 144,437 (9.8) 42,722 (8.1)  
  Other 132,635 (9.0) 45,814 (8.7)  
 Marital Status
  Married 816,103 (54.2) 306,183 (56.9)  
  Non-married 688,321 (45.8) 231,489 (43.1)  
 Education
  Less than high school education or equivalent 397,151 (26.6) 130,480 (24.4)  
  High school education or equivalent 518,306 (34.7) 194,584 (36.3)  
  Greater than high school education or equivalent 579,193 (38.8) 210,315 (39.3)  
 Self-Rated Health (SRH)
  Excellent 102,591 (6.5) 35,892 (6.7) 30,871 (5.7)
  Very good 393,205 (25.0) 148,911 (27.6) 138,340 (26.3)
  Good 599,089 (38.2) 216,901 (40.3) 208,904 (39.7)
  Fair 370,320 (23.6) 114,631 (21.0) 119,286 (22.6)
  Poor 104,673 (6.7) 22,406 (4.1) 29,331 (5.6)
 Falls
  Did not fall 1,163,694 (77.0) 428,294 (78.4) 400,071 (77.3)
  Fell to the ground 347,670 (23.0) 110,755 (20.5) 117,289 (22.7)
 Balance Problems
  No 1,002,304 (66.5) 379,692 (70.5) 338,669 (65.7)
  Yes 505,307 (33.5) 158,532 (29.5) 177,149 (34.3)
 Falls Management
  No 1,019,652 (69.3) 389,581 (74.1) 348,958 (69.2)
  Yes 451,062 (30.7) 135,948 (25.9) 155,283 (30.8)
 Variable (range) Mean (SD)
Objective 1 Objective 2 at Baseline Objective 2 at Follow up
  Frailty - ADL Scorea (0–6) 0.99 (1.66) 0.79 (1.44) 0.95 (1.60)
  Morbidity Scoreb (0–7) 2.86 (1.93) 2.76 (1.88) 2.88 (1.90)
  1. aActivities of daily living (ADL) score calculated as the sum of the six disability components (binary indicators): bathing, dressing, eating, getting in or out of chair, walking and using the toilet
  2. bMorbidity score is the sum of 13 comorbidity dummy indicators truncated at 7 comorbidities