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Table 4 Healthcare Utilization by socioeconomic indicators among women (Age –adjusted (except age category) odds ratios (OR) from multinomial logistic regression and their standard errors (SE)), SAGE Wave 1, Ghana

From: Effect of socio-economic factors in utilization of different healthcare services among older adult men and women in Ghana

Variables Private Charity Traditional Pharmacy Others
Age category
 50–60 1 1 1 1 1
 60 and more 1.123 (0.189) 1.455a (0.222) 1.800 (0.557) 1.021 (0.160) 0.755b (0.118)
Income
 Quintile1 1 1 1 1 1
 Quintile2 1.260 (0.280) 1.611 (0.337) 0.448a (0.460) 0.798 (0.217) 0.915 (0.173)
 Quintile3 0.940 (0.264) 1.302a (0.331) 0.839 (0.527) 0.389c (0.247) 0.661b (0.172)
 Quintile4 1.437 (0.279) 0.798 (0.446) 0.268b (0.548) 0.355c (0.256) 0.578c (0.184)
 Quintile5 2.094c (0.248) 1.883 (0.412) 0.339c (1.046) 0.339c (0.287) 0.667b (0.189)
Education
 Not educated 1 1 1 1 1
 Primary 1.520b (0.210) 1.045 (0.289) 0.854 (0.396) 0.800 (0.207) 0.699b (0.162)
 Secondary 1.351 (0.222) 1.219 (0.339) 0.793 (1.044) 0.412c (0.253) 0.663b (0.178)
 Tertiary 1.639 (0.530) 2.231 (0.657) 3.171c (0.313) 0.491 (0.831) 1.174 (0.475)
Insurance
 No 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 0.787 (0.180) 2.213c (0.237) 0.433b (0.411) 0.268c (0.188) 0.653c (0.123)
Employment
 Public 1 1 1 1 1
 Private 1.133 (0.635) 0.759 (0.721) 1.039 (0.332) 3.115 (0.699) 0.584 (0.762)
 Self-employed 0.918 (0.343) 0.622 (0.355) 199884.8c (0.288) 3.318b (0.575) 3.103b (0.387)
 Informal 0.521 (0.500) 1.139 (0.457) 1391009.1c (0.560) 2.256 (0.635) 1.199 (0.477)
Health status
 Very good 1 1 1 1 1
 Good 2.316 (0.611) 1.001 (1.050) 0.064 (0.861) 0.764 (0.461) 0.614 (0.405)
 Moderate 1.845 (0.615) 1.554 (1.045) 0.082c (0.804) 0.532 (0.451) 0.381b (0.387)
 Bad 2.228 (0.665) 1.853 (1.060) 0.227c (0.823) 0.756 (0.505) 0.429b (0.423)
 Very bad 2.134 (0.785) 0.369b (0.417) 0.187a (1.068) 0.700 (0.554) 0.833 (0.493)
  1. a, b and c indicates 1, 5 and 10 % significance level respectively