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Table 3 Regression results of cluster membership groups with individual, household and national explanatory variables

From: Focused maternity care in Ghana: results of a cluster analysis

Covariates/Socio-demographic All response variables
Adequate care group (ref)
Prenatal and postnatal care
Adequate care (ref)
Facility utilization
Adequate utilization group (ref)
Medication received
Adequate medication care group (ref)
Multinomial logistic regression Binary logistic regression Binary logistic regression
less adequate care group least adequate care group less adequate care group least adequate care group less adequate utilization care group less medication care group
Exp B (95 % CI) Exp B (95 % CI) Exp B (95 % CI) Exp B (95 % CI) Exp B (95 % CI) Exp B (95 % CI)
Age (years) 0.973 (0.951–0.997)* 1.078 (1.052–1.105)*** 1.089 (1.063–1.116)*** 1.003 (0.980–1.028) 0.971 (0.950–0.993)* 0.973 (0.953–0.992)*
Parity (# of living children) 1.079 (0.987–1.179) 0.919 (0.838–1.008) 0.899 (0.820–0.986)* 1.014 (0.927–1.110) 1.148 (1.055–1.248)** 1.085 (1.005–1.171)*
Rural residence type 1.082 (0.789–1.484) 1.596 (1.124–2.267)* 1.744 (1.229–2.473)* 1.482 (1.075–2.044)* 1.981 (1.490–2.633)*** 1.050 (0.795–1.387)
Currently employed 0.855 (0.621–1.178) 0.939 (0.647–1.362) 0.944 (0.651–1.370) 0.847 (0.614–1.167) 0.943 (0.691–1.285) 0.918 (0.691–1.220)
Marital status
 Never married 0.670 (0.389–1.154) 0.998 (0.533–1.868) 1.240 (0.657–2.340) 1.264 (0.756–2.112) 0.859 (0.518–1.425) 0.899 (0.560–1.443)
 Widowed/Divorced 1.160 (0.699–1.927) 2.048 (1.244–3.371)* 1.807 (1.107–2.951)* 0.818 (0.483–1.385) 1.193 (0.753–1.891) 1.382 (0.911–2.097)
 Married (ref)       
Wealth status
 Poorest 1.754 (0.999–3.078)* 1.042 (0.559–1.946) 0.959 (0.515–1.789) 1.403 (0.793–2.481) 6.300 (3.593–11.046)*** 1.601 (0.981–2.614)
 Poorer 1.362 (0.813–2.281) 1.042 (0.590–1.842) 1.080 (0.611–1.907) 1.491 (0.888–2.504) 3.175 (1.894–5.324)*** 1.205 (0.769–1.888)
 Middle 1.313 (0.810–2.130) 1.076 (0.633–1.828) 1.086 (0.640–1.845) 1.391 (0.853–2.268) 2.359 (1.440–3.866)** 1.082 (0.711–1.646)
 Richer 1.314 (0.843–2.046) 1.192 (0.737–1.929) 1.065 (0.660–1.720) 0.838 (0.524–1.339) 1.634 (1.015–2.632)* 1.013 (0.689–1.490)
 Richest (ref)       
Respondent education
 No education 1.832 (0.738–4.548) 1.468 (0.598–3.604) 1.392 (0.570–3.400) 2.029 (0.720–5.717) 2.336 (0.840–6.496) 1.803 (0.846–3.844)
 Primary 1.373 (0.556–3.394) 1.241 (0.510–3.020) 1.374 (0.567–3.329) 2.357 (0.841–6.603) 1.918 (0.692–5.315) 1.349 (0.636–2.862)
 Secondary 1.194 (0.495–2.877) 1.068 (0.453–2.518) 1.136 (0.484–2.665) 1.856 (0.678–5.083) 1.373 (0.503–3.751) 1.091 (0.526–2.263)
 Higher (ref)       
Region
 Upper East 1.359 (0.735–2.513) 1.260 (0.619–2.564) 1.078 (0.535–2.171) 0.977 (0.514–1.856) 0.919 (0.493–1.711) 1.133 (0.659–1.947)
 Upper West 0.364 (0.200–0.663)** 0.793 (0.418–1.502) 0.841 (0.445–1.589) 0.413 (0.224–0.761)* 0.899 (0.509–1.586) 0.387 (0.231–0.649)***
 Northern 1.315 (0.772–2.240) 1.418 (0.779–2.580) 1.658 (0.913–3.011) 2.022 (1.166–3.506)* 2.266 (1.312–3.914)* 1.230 (0.773–1.958)
 Brong Ahafo 0.854 (0.498–1.465) 0.915 (0.488–1.717) 0.947 (0.506–1.773) 0.903 (0.519–1.573) 0.846 (0.486–1.472) 0.793 (0.491–1.279)
 Ashanti 0.839 (0.515–1.366) 0.881 (0.511–1.519) 0.936 (0.544–1.612) 0.992 (0.600–1.641) 1.103 (0.669–1.817) 0.796 (0.519–1.222)
 Eastern 0.753 (0.428–1.325) 1.021 (0.553–1.887) 0.999 (0.542–1.841) 0.668 (0.371–1.203) 1.102 (0.633–1.919) 0.730 (0.446–1.195)
 Volta 0.347 (0.190–0.635)** 0.745 (0.401–1.384) 0.754 (0.407–1.396) 0.309 (0.162–0.590)*** 0.879 (0.510–1.517) 0.457 (0.275–0.760)*
 Central 0.674 (0.379–1.197) 0.637 (0.337–1.204) 0.633 (0.336–1.191) 0.617 (0.337–1.127) 1.678 (0.968–2.908) 0.701 (0.426–1.156)
 Western 1.226 (0.707–2.123) 1.098 (0.589–2.048) 0.951 (0.513–1.764) 0.784 (0.440–1.398) 2.136 (1.227–3.718)* 1.276 (0.789–2.062)
 Accra (ref)       
Partner education
 No education 0.982 (0.755–1.277) 1.100 (0.823–1.470) 1.124 (0.842–1.500) 1.073 (0.817–1.409) 1.121 (0.876–1.434) 1.041 (0.827–1.312)
 Primary 1.104 (0.696–1.751) 0.979 (0.556–1.722) 1.034 (0.589–1.815) 1.343 (0.842–2.142) 0.822 (0.529–1.277) 1.104 (0.729–1.671)
 Secondary 0.678 (0.318–1.445) 0.665 (0.258–1.716) 0.833 (0.320–2.166) 1.323 (0.648–2.702) 0.724 (0.368–1.422) 0.795 (0.406–1.558)
 Higher (ref)       
 Covered by NHIS 0.851 (0.669–1.083) 0.592 (0.450–0.780)*** 0.592 (0.450–0.780) 0.851 (0.669–1.083)*** 0.508 (0.406–0.637)*** 0.848 (0.686–1.049)
 Concerned that no drugs available 0.657 (0.423–1.021) 0.591 (0.364–0.962)* 0.591 (0.364–0.962) 0.657 (0.423–1.021) 1.048 (0.694–1.583) 0.796 (0.544–1.164)
 Slept under ITNs 0.872 (0.697–1.090) 0.503 (0.389–0.650)*** 0.503 (0.389–0.650) 0.872 (0.697–1.090)*** 0.962 (0.776–1.193) 0.861 (0.707–1.049)
Final say on own health
 Respondents 1.065 (0.791–1.434) 1.310 (0.948–1.811) 1.310 (0.948–1.811)* 1.065 (0.791–1.434)* 0.929 (0.700–1.234) 1.133 (0.874–1.468)
 Husband/partner 1.197 (0.919–1.558) 1.168 (0.862–1.583) 1.168 (0.862–1.583)*** 1.197 (0.919–1.558) 1.024 (0.793–1.323) 1.124 (0.889–1.422)
 Both spouses (ref)       
Difficulty with night/day vision at pregnancy
 Big problem 0.958 (0.681–1.349) 0.734 (0.477–1.130) 0.734 (0.477–1.130) 0.958 (0.681–1.349) 1.208 (0.865–1.687) 0.909 (0.666–1.242)
 Not a big problem 1.315 (0.960–1.801) 1.369 (0.971–1.930) 1.369 (0.971–1.930) 1.315 (0.960–1.801) 1.131 (0.836–1.530) 1.262 (0.959–1.660)
 No problem (ref)       
Difficulty with distance/transport on health needs
 Big problem 0.941 (0.632–1.401) 1.250 (0.819–1.907) 1.250 (0.819–1.907) 0.941 (0.632–1.401) 1.027 (0.706–1.494) 0.986 (0.702–1.386)
 Not a big problem 0.792 (0.596–1.053) 0.671 (0.486–0.928)* 0.671 (0.486–0.928) 0.792 (0.596–1.053) 0.712 (0.543–0.934)* 0.766 (0.596–0.983)*
 No problem (ref)       
Difficulty with money/permission on getting health
 Big problem 0.890 (0.593–1.333) 1.207 (0.727–2.003) 1.207 (0.727–2.003) 0.890 (0.593–1.333) 1.036 (0.683–1.570) 0.874 (0.607–1.259)
 Not a big problem 0.723 (0.473–1.105) 1.290 (0.764–2.179) 1.290 (0.764–2.179) 0.723 (0.473–1.105) 0.835 (0.543–1.284) 0.784 (0.536–1.147)
 No problem (ref)       
No provider/female provider available
 Big problem 0.953 (0.689–1.317) 1.378 (0.944–2.012) 1.378 (0.944–2.012) 0.953 (0.689–1.317) 1.086 (0.798–1.479) 1.037 (0.778–1.383)
 Not a big problem 1.543 (0.949–2.507) 2.284 (1.319–3.955)* 2.284 (1.319–3.955) 1.543 (0.949–2.507)* 0.869 (0.550–1.375) 1.348 (0.883–2.057)
 No problem (ref)       
Regression statistics
observations 2147 2147 2147 2147
   –2LL Ratio 3939.823 3879.066 2270.445 2604.792
   –Pseudo R square 0.176 0.179 0.372 0.127
   –P values 0.000 0.000 0.217 0.407
  1. (ref)-all reference categories included in analysis *** p = 0.000, ** p ≤ 0.001, * p ≤ 0.0