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Table 4 Barriers to Health Care Utilization among Adolescents in last 12 months across Sites by Gender

From: A mixed methods study to examine the influence of the neighborhood social context on adolescent health service utilization

  Baltimore
Female W % (U %, N)
Male W % (U %, N)
New Delhi
Female W % (U %, N)
Male W % (U %, N)
Ibadan
Female W % (U %, N)
Male W % (U %, N)
Johannesburg
Female W % (U %, N)
Male W % (U %, N)
Shanghai
Female W % (U %, N)
Male W % (U %, N)
Female (n)
Male (n)
188
248
125
148
219
214
224
271
79
50
Needed but did not seek health care in the last 12 months*** 23.4 (23.4, 44)
23.4 (25, 62)
17.3 (18.4, 23)
22.2 (25.0, 37)
9.9 (11.0, 24)**
18.6 (22.0, 47)**
31.6 (33.5, 75)
37.8 (35.8, 97)
20.1 (22.8, 18)
23.7 (22, 11)
Reasons for Not Seeking Care in the last 12 months (among those who needed but did not seek health care)
Female (n)
Male (n)
43
62
23
37
29
47
74
97
18
11
Location 16.5 (11.6, 5)**
5.4 (11.3, 7)**
31.0 (34.8, 8)
47.9 (35.1, 13)
1.9 (3.5, 1)
9.4 (12.8, 6)
12.1 (10.8, 8)
12.2 (14.4, 14)
5.5 (11.1, 2)*
0 (0, 0)*
Distance 12.1 (11.6, 5)
17.1 (11.3, 7)
27.9 (21.7, 5)
16.2 (13.5, 5)
7.8 (6.9, 3)
0 (0, 0)
14.6 (9.5, 7)
10.8 (9.3, 9)
22.8 (33.3, 6)
0 (0, 0)
Fees/payment 11.5 (14.0, 6)
6.5 (8.1, 5)
14.1 (30.4, 7)
13.1 (16.2, 6)
14.6 (13.8, 4)
12.7 (14.9, 7)
10.2 (13.5, 10)
10.3 (13.4, 13)
37.7 (27.8, 5)
7.7 (18.2, 2)
Service hours 5.1 (2.3, 1)
5.3 (6.5, 4)
13.2 (13.0, 3)
4.0 (2.7, 1)
0 (0, 0)
11.3 (8.5, 4)
9.6 (8.1, 6)***
4.2 (7.2, 7)***
9.0 (16.7, 3)
11.1 (18.2, 2)
Waiting time 22.0 (16.3, 7)*
12.6 (12.9, 8)*
25.2 (30.4, 7)
10.7 (8.1, 3)
10.5 (6.9, 2)
19.3 (12.8, 6)
16.3 (20.3, 15)*
11.4 (15.5, 15)*
40.9 (27.8, 5)
35.8 (36.4, 4)
Staff attitude 9.5 (4.7, 2)
0.9 (1.6, 1)
8.3 (8.7, 2)
0 (0, 0)
0 (0, 0)
5.1 (4.3, 2)
9.9 (13.5, 10)
5.9 (10.3, 10)
22.0 (5.6, 1)
27.3 (18.2, 2)
Lack of confidentiality 0.6 (2.3, 1)*
1.9 (1.6, 1)*
7.5 (4.4, 1)
1.0 (2.7, 1)
1.8 (3.5, 1)
1.2 (2.13, 1)
19.3 (13.5, 19)**
6.9 (10.3, 10)**
3.5 (5.6, 1)
13.1 (18.2, 2)
Health problems were connected to illegal activities 3.0 (2.3, 1)*
1.2 (3.2, 2)*
16.4 (21.7, 5)**
3.8 (5.4, 2)**
5.8 (10.3, 3)
18.1 (12.8, 6)
14.6 (5.4, 4)**
2.7 (2.1, 2)**
0 (0, 0)
18.1 (9.1, 1)
Other 33.4 (44.2, 19)
46.8 (45.2, 28)
26.4 (17.4, 4)
35.9 (37.8, 14)
17.8 (20.7, 6)
20.4 (27.7, 13)
9.9 (14.9, 11)
16.3 (22.7, 22)
66.6 (50.0, 9)
45.9 (36.4, 4)
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01;***p < .001