Skip to main content

Table 1 NPT constructs and sub-constructs

From: Learning from doing: the case for combining normalisation process theory and participatory learning and action research methodology for primary healthcare implementation research

NPT Constructs
Coherence Cognitive Participation Collective Action Reflexive Monitoring
Can stakeholders make sense of the intervention? Can stakeholders get others involved in implementing the intervention? What needs to be done to make the intervention work in practice? Can the intervention be monitored and evaluated?
Differentiation Enrolment Interactional workability Systematisation
Do stakeholders see this as a new way working? Do the stakeholders believe they are the correct people to drive forward the implementation? Does the intervention make it easier or harder to complete tasks? Will stakeholders be able to judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Individual specification Initiation Skill set workability Individual appraisal
Do individuals understand what tasks the intervention requires of them? Are they willing and able to engage others in the implementation? Do those implementing the intervention have the correct skills and training for the job? How will individuals judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Communal specification Activation Relational integration Communal appraisal
Do all those involved agree about the purpose of the intervention? Can stakeholders identify what tasks and activities are required to sustain the intervention? Do those involved in the implementation have confidence in the new way of working? How will stakeholders collectively judge the effectiveness of the intervention?
Internalisation Legitimation Contextual integration Reconfiguration
Do all the stakeholders grasp the potential benefits and value of the intervention? Do they believe it is appropriate for them to be involved in the intervention? Do local and national resources and policies support the implementation? Will stakeholders be able to modify the intervention based on evaluation and experience?