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Table 3 Human resources time and costs for severe and very severe pneumonia case management at Mchinji District Hospital

From: Measurement and valuation of health providers’ time for the management of childhood pneumonia in rural Malawi: an empirical study

  All Severe pneumonia Very severe pneumonia P-value
Mean time (SD), minutes     
Senior clinical cadres 3.26 (8.22) 2.93 (7.94) 3.67 (8.68) 0.37
Clinical cadres 73.27 (34.76) 72.29 (37.68) 74.42 (31.76) 0.41
Support staff 11.44 (14.98) 7.28 (7.27) 16.29 (19.75) 0.01
HR costs, US$     
Cost per child 30.99 29.52 32.69  
Annual costs 24,947 14,817 9,906  
One-way sensitivity analysis     
Annual cost savings (range) 6,439    
a (2,179–9,906)    
b (−978–11,495)    
  1. a Based on PCV-13 vaccine efficacy estimates of 65 % (range: 22–100 %) against all-cause very severe pneumonia and 0 % against all-cause severe pneumonia (McCollum ED, Nambiar, B, et al. Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on clinical and hypoxemic childhood pneumonia at the community, health centre and hospital levels over three years in Malawi: a time series analysis of two districts, under review)
  2. b Based on a +/− 25 % increase in the annual number of pneumonia inpatients under five years of age