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Table 2 Time spent on individual activities for severe (n = 28) and very severe inpatients (n = 24)

From: Measurement and valuation of health providers’ time for the management of childhood pneumonia in rural Malawi: an empirical study

  Severe Very severe  
  N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) P-value*
Injecting antibiotics 241 25.78 (16.63) 42 29.16 (18.35) 0.24
Oral medications 177 15.21 (9.34) 159 16.42 (14.26) 0.36
OPD assessment 28 12.70 (9.93) 24 9.1 (8.45) 0.08
Monitoring oxygen saturation 21 7.25 (10.94) 67 9.71 (10.97) 0.21
Ward round 49 4.78 (4.04) 48 5.37 (7.60) 0.36
Oxygen therapy 5 0.36 (0.95) 20 4.87 (8.45) 0.001
Discharge/paperwork 45 3.36 (2.23) 50 2.71 (3.03) 0.50
Monitoring vital signs 12 1.25 (3.48) 10 1.46 (2.22) 0.40
Intra-venous fluid 3 0.32 (1.06) 3 1.79 (6.09) 0.11
Diagnostic tests 3 0.42 (1.26) 5 0.75 (1.73) 0.22
Administering antimalarials 5 0.28 (1.01) 0 0 (0) 0.08
TOTAL 589 93.14 (37.99) 428 106.43 (54.76) 0.15
  1. N total observations for each activity, OPD out-patient department
  2. Injecting antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, gentamicin
  3. Oral medications: paracetamol, cotrimoxazole, salbutamol, aminophylline
  4. Antimalarials: artemisinin-based combination therapy, quinine. Diagnostic tests: malaria blood film, HIV antibody test
  5. * T-test for a difference in mean time spent on activity between severe and very severe cases